GEOG 202

A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1993, under which the rights of the majority ‘non-white’ inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by white people was maintained. Homelands and Townships.
Berlin Conference 1884
of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity on the part of the European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
Cecil Rhodes
Cape to Cairo. Wealthy Englishman wanted to gain control of British colonies and build railroad from Cape to Cairo, Egypt. Colonized Zimbabwe.
Robert Mugabe
Zimbabwe. Marxist revolutionary who came to power by the gun, now is “president for life”
“Blood Diamonds”
In relation to diamond trading, conflict diamond (also called a converted diamond, blood diamond, hot diamond, or a war diamond) refers to a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, invading army’s war efforts, or a warlord’s activity, usually in Africa[1] where around two-thirds of the world’s diamonds are extracted.
Operation “Dragon Rouge” and Operation “Dragon Noire”
U.S. planes carry Belgium Para-commandos and fly 4000 miles to stage surprise raid to rescue 600 European hostages held by Congolese Communist terrorists
Cultural Hearth
birthplace of early empires based on river locations. Nile, Jordan, Tigress, and Euphrates rivers.
“Sick man of Europe”
Ottoman Empire. Expansion of Islam. a nickname that has been used to describe a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or impoverishment. The term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire, but has since been applied at one time or another to nearly every other mid-to-large-sized country in Europe.
Qanat System
Long distance manmade underground tunnel system intercepts the underground water and re-directs to fields in valleys. A long distance manmade undergound tunnel system intercepts the underground water and re-directs to field in valleys. a series of wells were dug down to connect with near horizontal slanting tunnel and this underground tunnel carried water, some times hundred miles, from mountain regions into lowlands for agricultural use.
Thirty Years War
killed a quarter of all Germans in what is now Germany.
Treaty of Westphalia
new political order in central Europe, based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign ruler.
Berlin to Bagdhad Railway
was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad with a 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq.
Balfour Declaration
was a formal statement of policy by the British government stating that

His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”

National Self determination
is the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference. The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, or what the outcome should be, be it independence, federation, protection, some form of autonomy or even full assimilation.[1] Neither does it state what the delimitation between nations should be — or even what constitutes a nation. In fact, there are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to self-determination.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
of 1916 was a secret agreement between the governments of the UK and France,[1] with the assent of Imperial Russia, defining their respective spheres of influence and control in Western Asia after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It effectively divided the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of future British and French control or influence.
Camp David Accord
Sadat and Begin sign peace settlements. President Carter witnesses signatures.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Also designed to help these countries protect themselves from Soviets. Was set up to defend Western Europe from the threat of attack by the Soviet Union and its Communist East European government’s armies. Leads to European Union (EU).
The Warsaw Pact
The treaty was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. The eight member countries of the Warsaw Treaty pledged the mutual defense of any member who would be attacked; relations among the treaty signatories were based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence. Organized by Soviet Union. Communist state’s armies also were expected to enforce Communist one party control over those state’s citizens.
The Autobann
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the large-scale economic program, 1947–1951, of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Europe. Seen as necessary to protect their peoples against Communist subversion. Leads to European Union (EU).
road on top, keeps it out of low wet area, was hazardous during war times. (Holland)Netherlands polders, are flat dyked lowlands reclaimed from the sea.
National Self Determination
is the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference. Woodrow Wilson
Fulda Gap
is a region of lower elevation between the former East German border and western Germany. Named for the town of Fulda, the Fulda Gap was strategically important during the Cold War. “Gap” refers to a corridor of lowlands which is suitable for operations by large-scale armored forces. The Fulda Gap was one of two obvious routes for a hypothetical Soviet tank attack upon West Germany from Eastern Europe, especially East Germany; the second route was the North German Plain, and the third, less likely, route was up through the Danube River valley in Austria. The concept of a major tank battle along the Fulda Gap was a predominant element of NATO war planning during the Cold War. Soviet Union battle plan was to launch surprise 6,000 tank armored “Blitz Krieg” against Western Europe
Fulda Gap was key to stopping this invasion.
Gulag Archipelago
major river system in Europe.

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