Geog 416 Exam 1

Geography
Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena

Point

Line

Area

Volume

Feature Characteristics

Discrete

Discontinue

If continuous be specific

Measurement Levels

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Categories of Map Symbols

Point

Line

Areas

Graphic Elements of Symbols

Size

Shape

Pattern

Orientation

Arrangment

Color

Value

Intensity

1st Step of Mapping
Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena
2nd Step of Mapping
Features Characteristics
3rd Step of Mapping
Measurement Levels
4th Step of Mapping
Categories of Map Symbols
5th Step of Mapping
Graphic Elements of Symbols

Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena

{Examples}

Point: Mountain Peak, Plant, Animal

Line: Bedrock, Vegetation

Area: Island, Species Range

Volume: Mineral Reserve, Biomass

Feature Characteristics

{Examples}

Point: House, Camp Sites

Line: Road, Guard Rails along road

Area: Park, Public own land

Volume: Landfill, Mines along coal seam

Data Scale: Measurement Levels

{4 scales}

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Nominal
NUMBERS to IDENTIFY something but not the actual name
Ordinal
establish ORDER only
Interval
interval scale the difference of numbers
Ratio
measurement = absolute zero and difference between numbers
Cognitive Maps

Mental Maps

psychology construct

person’s perception of place

physical characteristics of place

EX: boundaries of neighborhood

independent Euclidian distance

Cartographic Map 1

dependent on Euclidian distance and direction

 

Tangible: physical and carried around with relative case

 

Virtual: represented one of many digital environments

Scale

ration or relationship distance of area on map corresponds with area on ground

;

1 unit = 1/100,000 squared unit

;

EX: UA Campus = 1,000 feet long = 1 inch on map

;

Large ; Small Scale = RELATIVE

;

Large Scale; 1:24,000

*********; 1:500,000

Small Scale; 1:3,000,000

Large Scale

small portions of earth’s surface very detailed

 

Representation Fraction=relatively large

1/1,200 (inch -> 100 feet)

Small Scale

Large areas = generalized info, less detailed

 

Representation Fraction = Small

1/1,000,000

Ratio Scale

no units

distance conversion 1:24,000

map units to real world units = same

 

Equivalent Scale

distant units

units may not be same

1 in = 500 ft

1 in = 1 mile

10 mm = 1 km

Bar Scale

Printed

provides reference for user

copied, reduced, etc

Scale
connected through generalization and accuracy
Non – Indexical Map
maps = scientific = embody, true statement, independent, context are made
Indexical Map
statements = dependent for their truth in context
Representation

Features = Symbols

 

Geometry = orthographic and scaled

 

 

Object Based Data Model

{2 Models}

Vector Model

 

Raster Model

Vector Model

{Object Based Data Model}

Individual Base

Point – Line – System

No Neighborhood Analyze

2D Cartesian Coordinate System

Spatial info measurement=coded

 

have to tell computer to make points to create lines, shapes.

Ex: draw out “Shark” example

 

have to tell WHERE it is

Raster Model

{Object Based Data Model}

Discrete Continuous

Analytical Algoriths

Neighborhood Analysis

1 number in a cell

Grid rows and columns = tessellation

basic unit = spatial = cell

Encoded

 

Examples: elevation, temperature, remotely sensed images, rainfall

 

Have to tell WHAT it is

Reference Map

Navigation

Road Maps

Collection = Location, Navigation, and Identification

Thematic Elements

Thematic Map

highlight single theme

geology

analysis and visualization

reference elements

Quantitative Thematic Map

1. dots

2. 3D

3. Flow Map

(#1)

Dots

{Quantitative Thematic Map}

size by units

bigger the dots, the bigger the units

(#2)

3D

{Quantitative Thematic Map}

 

volumes

elevation

Ex: Area Cartogram

(#3)

Flow Map

{Quantitative Thematic Map}

arrows directing data
3 Important Components
  1. Geographic or Base Map
  • convey message
  • info
  • Thematic Overlay
    • clear and easy
  • ?
  • HSV Color Model

    Hue {Hee-yoo}

    Saturation

    Value

    Hue = Color HSV = Saturation, value color model

     

    Value

    {HSV Color Model}

    Lightness or darkness of hue

    0 = dark

    100 = bright

    the darker the color = higher value

    Saturation

    {HSV Color Value}

    center -> out (measures)

    measure in 1 and 100

    1 = pale

    100 = Saturated

    Symbolized quantitative data

    more saturated, higher value

    Orientation

    {HSV Color Model}

    match marks like real world

    be careful not to change their orientation

    real landscapes, etc

    Texture

    {HSV Color Model}

    Polygons = number of symbol options

    color, shape, semi – transparent

    dots, lines

    Legibility

    {Texts}

     

    3 Principles

    Transparent

    Big Features

    Restraint

    Transparent

     

    Text: Legibility

    Able to read

    without going

    back and forth

    content should be more important then container

    Big Features

     

    Text: Legibility

    Larger counter

    larger ample

    shapes easier to recognize

    easy to recognize fonts

    Restraint

     

    Text: Legibility

    Not too light or too bold

    not too much serifs attention

    Legibility

     

    {Text}

    Typeface Design: distinguishing one letter to another.

    Readability

     

    {Text}

    typography

    how easily words, phrases, and blocks of letters to read

     

    • size: make sure details on find serifs on modern fonts dont disappear at small size
    • use “hallow” on fonts to read easier when background colors are dark

    Upper Case

    {Text}

    country, continent, oceans

     

    mix upper & lower = point labels

     

    good to mix cases = tell differences in labels

    Typography

    symbol

    information

     

    art, craft, and process of composing type and printing it

    History Type

     

    {Typography}

    1. Scribal Latin
    2. Printing Press
    3. Personal Printers
    4. Internet Publishing

    Text of Symbols
    • personality of typeface class
    • legibility
    • x – height
    • font size
    • upper & lower class
    • font families
    • backgrounds – use hallow when background is busy
    • san serif = recommended= easy to read=easy to follow
      • when blurry easy to interpret

    Text Recommendations

    Labels

    lines

    Polygons

    Points

    North Arrows & Scale Bars

    Titles

    Sources

     

    Text needs to be right – side – up

    Points

    Signify = hierarchy of labels

     

    bigger point for bigger things

    lower for less important things

    Placing Line Labels

    Repeatable

    Above Line

    Follow Shape

    Horizontal

    Italicize {blue =water}

    Polygon Labels

    should in INSIDE

    multiple lines, angled, or curved to fit

    large polygon = spaced out letter

    Scale Bar
    made smaller and thin
    North Arrow

    smaller {& professional}

    no pic no logo

    Source and Author Info

    Smallest Text on map

    Author = lower right

    Source = lower left

    8 pts

    Title & Legend Text

    Title = largest = 2.5 larger

    Legends = 1.5 larger

    Adjust depending map size

    Geodessy

    Science of measuring & monitoring size & shape of earth

     

    helps use understand our world

     

    heights, angles, distances between locations

     

    create spatial reference system that we can use

    Eratosthenes

    {Era -tos – thee – nes?}

    Geographer = 1st to use term “Geography”

     

    Measured two wells at different locations. Shadows appear one well with the other don’t. Shadows appears at 7.12 Degrees between the shadowed areas;where it centered to central earth to measure ’roundness’ of earth.

    Oblate Shape ’roundness’

    The English

    ;

    ;

    People felt the English is right cuz everything is spaced out.

    Prolate Shape ’roundness’

    Egg Shape

    The French

    Geiod

    sea level

    ;

    idealized equilibrium surface of sea water -; equipotential gravitational surface

    ;

    irregular shape

    ;

    idealized, not realized surface

    ;

    mountain mass disturbs gravitational field = geoid

    ;

    lousy foundation

    surface irregular

    cannot be measured mathematically

    Azimuths and distances not determined exactly

    Ellipsoide

    “Reference Ellipsoide”

    mathematical model of “smooth” shape

    regular shape

    calculated exactly

    easy to create

    superior foundation of map

    Spheroid =; Flat

    Flat maps are projected to make it flat involving distorting map

    ;

    All flat maps = distort shape or size or direction or distance;

    hold one constant, not all four

    Map Projection

    {Basic INfo}

    ;

    Light in center of Ellipsoide;to project on flat surface

    ;

    GIS map = 2D

    ;

    Map Projection

    3 types

    1. Cylindrical
    2. Cones
    3. Planar

    Cylindrical

    {Map Projection}

    wraps paper on globe and light shine thru globe

    ;

    longetitude most accurate = between 30o;and 30o {since they are closer together}

    -; equally spaced

    ;

    pass;60o is not good since they distort apart

    Cones

    {Map Projection}

    Polygonic: Multiple different cones use on globe measures on different angles of globe

    ;

    Each cones measures each parellel lines

    ;

    ;

    {not perfect but good}

    Planar

    use one sheet flat paper to measure map of different angles

    ;

    {worst procedure}

    Map Symbols

    {Definition}

    information

    save space, easier, ; quicker to read

    symbols may be simple drawings, letters, colored shapes, shortened words

    Map Symbols

    {2 types}

    Shape

    Size

    Shape

    {Map Symbols}

    Identify similar objects or differentiate between different objects

    ;

    abstract: more details

    or

    replicate: simple details

    Size

    {Map Symbols}

    • larger symbol = more larger, stronger, etc.
    • smaller symbol = less, smaller, weaker, etc.
    • points, larger;or smaller
    • lines thicker and thinner
    • areas larger and smaller (cartograms)
    • ordinal, internal, ratio, scale data
    • avoid large and small dots since they can overlap and become less readable

    John Snow

    1813 – 1858

    @14 became apprentice as surgeon

    1st to discover calibration of anesthesia

    mapped cholera outbreak of 1854

    Map Projection

    ;

    {random term}

    different sizes, shapes, and distortion for different projection

    Shape Distortion

    ;

    {Map Projection}

    Greenland BIGGER than South America when Greenland SHOULD be smaller

    Area Distortion

    ;

    {Map Projection}

    map of USA with

    827,000 miles2 (smaller scale)

    versus

    6.8 million miles2 (larger scale)

    Distance Distortion

    ;

    {Map Projection}

    different projections have different distortions between 2 points

    Projection Selection Guidelines

    ;

    1. ;Equatorial to Tropics = Cylindrical
    2. Midlattitudes = Conic
    3. Polar Regions = Azimuthal

    ;

    Secant: Provide 2 lines of ZERO distortion

    Coordinate System

    points configure shapes and lines of graph

    ;

    *geometry*

    ;

    • Geoid irregular shape and surface
    • Reference Ellipsoide regular shape and surface
    • Projection making oblate flat
    • Coordinate Systems (x,y) graph; geometry

    Basic Elements of Coordinate Systems

    (0,0) Point Systems

    X – Coordinate Points

    Y – Coordinate Points

    ;

    • defines DIRECTION
    • DISTANCES in ORIGIN of direction

    Datum
    reference specifications of measurements system of coordinate system of surface

    Calculate

    {Scales}

    compare known distances in same units ; compute ration:

    ;

    UA Football Field:

    100 yards in real life

    3 inches on map

    ;

    map scale = (map distance) / (actual distance)

    ;

    map scale = (3)/(3600)

    ;

    map scale = (1)/(1200) = 1:1,200

    Scale Selection

    Large ;- map scale -; small

    Small ;- map earth area -; large

    more ;- info detail -; less

    Less general ;- symbolized -; more general

    zoom in ;- zooming -; zoom out

    Imperial Units

    inches, feet, yards, miles

    measure distance of different parts of body

    ;

    *1 inch = 2.54 cm or 25.4 mm*

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