GEOG Ch. 2 Russia

Geography
Near Abroad
the 15 republics that made up the U.S.S.R.
oligarchs
“oppurtunists” in Russia (post-Soviet) who had an advantage because of government ties; wealthy, elite
climatology
study of distribution of climatic conditions and why it’s so
continentality
inland climatic environment remote from moderating and moistening maritime influences — ENVIRONMENT WITH CONTINENTAL CLIMATE
weather
atmospheric conditions at a given place/time
tundra
treeless plain along the Arctic coast (mosses/lichens/some grasses survive)
taiga
confiferous forests, directly south of tundra (Siberia in Russia)
permafrost
frozen water in ground; in Arctic Lowland
forward capital
a capital city built to claim the land it is on; St. Petersburg towards Swedish Finland
imperialism
the grow and maintance of an empire
Russification
Soviet-controlled migration of Russians to push minorities east
federation
division of power between national and regional governments
collectivize
private farms are grouped together into large-scale, state-run enterprises
colonialism
imperialistic nations take over other territories to exploit them for a profit
command economy
manufacturers were assigned jobs by the government
unitary state system
regions/nation-states that have a central governing power
distance decay
the deteriation of interactions between places due to the large distance between them
population decline
a decrease in national population
heartland theory
the “heartland” of Eurasia (East Europe, West Russia) would gain enough power for world domination because of natural protection and resource wealth; CREATED BY HALFORD MACKINDER (British geographer)
core area
the heartland of a state; has much of population, leading cities, major industries, densest transportation networks, most intesively cultivated lands, other key components of the country

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