geographical skills and features

Geography
archipelago

An … sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands

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atoll

An … is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely

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basin

a … refers to a shallow area or depression filled with water or a large, round, bowl-shaped depression that occurs on land or in the ocean. It can also refer to a water area that has been closed artificially so that the tide does not cause changes.

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bay

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A … is a large body of water connected to an ocean or sea formed by an inlet of land due to the surrounding land blocking some waves and often reducing winds

beach

A … is a landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, lake, or river. It usually consists of loose particles, which are often composed of rock, such as sandgravelshinglepebbles, or cobblestones

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butte

A … is an isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; … are smaller than mesas, plateaus, and table landforms

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canal
… and navigations are man-made channels for water[image]
canyon

A …or gorge is a deep ravine between pairs of escarpments or cliffs and is most often carved from the landscape by the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales

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cape

In geography, a …is a headland or promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea

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cliff

In geography and geology, a …is a vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. …are formed as erosion landforms due to the processes of erosion and weathering that produce them

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coast

, also called shore ,  broad area of land that borders the sea.

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dam
A is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. … generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water[image]
delta

A river … is low-lying plain or landform that occurs at the mouth of a river near where the river flows into the ocean or other body of water

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deserts
A … is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life[image]
dune

In physical geography, a … is a hill of sand built by either wind or water flow

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fjord

Geologically, a … is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial erosion

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foothills

… are geographically defined as gradual increases in elevation at the base of a mountain range

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glacier

A … is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries

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gulf
  1. A is a portion of the ocean that penetrates land. …vary greatly in size, shape, and depth. They are generally larger and more deeply indented than bays.[image]

harbour

A sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships

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hill

 

A … is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain[image]

island

Any area of land smaller than a continent and entirely surrounded by water

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isthmus

An … is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas, usually with water on either side

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lagoon

A … is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs

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lake

A … is a body of relatively still liquid of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from a river that serves to feed or drain the … . they lie on land and are not part of the ocean are also larger and deeper than ponds

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mesa

a land formation, less extensive than a plateau, having steep walls and a relatively flat top and common in arid and semiarid parts of the southwestern U.S.

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mountain

A … is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A … is generally steeper than a hill. … are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism

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mountain pass

A … is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. If following the lowest possible route, a pass is locally the highest point on that route.

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mountain range

A … is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains

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mouth
A … is the part of the Earth where a river opens up into the ocean[image]
oasis

In geography, an … is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source

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ocean

An … is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet’s hydrosphere

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peak

the pointed top of a mountain or hill

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peninsula

… is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland

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plain

In geography, a … is a flat region. … occur as lowlands and at the bottoms of valleys but also on plateaus or uplands at high elevations

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plateau
In geology and earth science, a … also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain[image]
port

… is a city, town, or other place where ships load or unload

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reef
A … is a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water[image]
reservoir

A … is a natural or artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment from a dam which is used to store water

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river

A … is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another …

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river basin

all the land drained by a river

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sea

a large body of water partly or entirely surrounding land

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source

where a river begins

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strait

A … is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger, navigable bodies of water

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timber line

The … is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture)

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tributary

smaller stream that joins into another stream or river

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valley

in geology, a … or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide. The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of …

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volcano

A … is an opening, or rupture, in the surface or crust of the Earth or a planetary mass object, which allows hot lava, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface

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waterfall

A … is a place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a stream or river

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land area of australia?
7.6 mill km?
australian ocean territory size?
16.1 mill km?
lines of … are parallel
latitude
lines of … are the same length
longitude
… cause mountains and volcanoes and trenches and earthquakes and tsunaimis and everything else seismic
continental drift formed by convection currents
biodiversity
variety of different organisms on earth and the need to maintain and protect the diversity.
biosphere
realm of earth including all plant and animal life
citizenship
membership of nation or state bringing privilages and rights. active citizenship involves participating in community activities and public affairs.
pangea

… was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming approximately 300 million years ago. It began to break apart around 200 million years ago

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gondwana
In paleogeography, … , also … , is the name given to the more southerly of two supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed from approximately 510 to 180 million years ago[image]
civics
… is the study of the great theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government
communities
… can refer to a usually small, social unit of any size that shares common values. The term can also refer to the national community or international community
culture
the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society
democratic processes
The refers to a process of exercising free will by a country’s citizens especially where political issues are concerned
ecological dimensions
… , describes the relationship between people and the environment and the effect that they have on each other
ecosystem
An … is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system
environment

The biophysical environment is the surrounding of an organism or population, and includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution

includes natural and manmade features

geographical issues
Areas of concern that arise due to changes in environments and which can be investigated in spatial and ecological dimensions
geographical processes
 changes the geography of a region
human environment
environment made or changed by humans
local scale
a scale of human organisation to include distinct social, cultural and economic activity but small enough to provide familiar study.
majority world
previously known as developing countries, the world’s most poorest
physical enironment
The  is defined as the section of the human environment that has physical factors, for instance soil, water supply and climate
nation state
political unit of people living in a definite territory, with their own government, economy, political org and external security
political organisation
a formal scale of political power from step to step.
social/cultural factors
aesthetics (appearance), language, law, politics, religion, values, attitudes, social organizations, reference groups, family, a persons role and status in their chosen society, technology and material culture
spartial dimension
describes where things are and why they are there
spartial interdependence
where phenomena are developed by dependence on each other
sustainability
the ability to provide for the needs of this generation without compromising future generations.

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