Geography 101 S. Hannes test 3

Geography
the atmosphere
Description and location
extended 6000 miles; 97% is concentrated in the first 18 miles; exerts a pressure of 14.7 lb/sq in at sea level.
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
name one
1. gases: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, .93 argon, .03 Co2
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
next one
water vapor- found in lower atmosphere.
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
next next one
oxygen- used in breathing
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
2nd 2 last
carbon dioxide- needed for photosynthesis. absorbs heat; greenhouse effect.
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
last one
ozone- absorbs ultraviolet. “ozone hole”
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
another last one
liquids and solids- water,; also dust, pollen, seeds, salt, insect parts, viruses ,bacteria.
composition (different types of what makes up the atmosphere)
last one for real
hygroscopic nuclei- nuclei of condensation, small solids for water to condense upon the atmosphere.
4 layers of the atmosphere (based upon temperature)
1.
1. troposphere- lowest; temperatures decrease with altitude; normal lapse rate
4 layers of the atmosphere (based upon temperature)
2.
stratosphere- temperatures increase with altitude; ozone layer/90% less contained here.
4 layers of the atmosphere (based upon temperature)
3.
mesophere- temperatures decase with altitude
4 layers of the atmosphere (based upon temperature)
4.
Thermosphere, temps increase; ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays.
Weather
atmospheric conditions at a given time and place.
meteorology
study of the changing atmospheric conditions
climate
average weather and deviations likely to occur
climatology
study of the different varieties of climate on earth
elements, (key ingredients of weather and climate)
1. solar energy
2. temperature
3. precipitation and moisture
4. pressure and winds.
Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

1.

latitude- influences temp
Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

2.

Land vs water- land quick to heat, quick to cool

water slow to heat, slow to cool

Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

3.

ocean currents warm vs cold currents

cold current will have cold air/vice versa

Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

4.

altitude- gets cooler as you go up troposphere.
Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

5.

landform barriers- block movements of air
Controls (cause changes or variations in elements)

6.

people- deliberate vs. unintentional.
Celsius converson
C= 5/9(F-32)
Fahrenheit conversion
F=9/5 C+32
Electromagnetic radiation
energy from the sun; 41% visible
short waves
visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
solar constant
amount of energy received at the top of the atmosphere
insolation
incoming solar radiation; that reveived at the earths surface
effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation
1.
25% reflected back by clouds and the ground
effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation
2.
7% scattered to space; why the sky is blue.
effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation
3.
20% scattered down to earth
effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation
4.
25% direct radiation (transmission)
effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation
5.
18% absorbed by ozone layer, water vapor, etc.
Heating of the air

absorption

accounts for only 10-15% of the total
planck’s law
the hotter the body, the more energy it will radiate, and the shorter the wavelength of that radiation.
Methods of heat transfer
1.
radiation- most important method; greenhouse effect
Methods of heat transfer
2.
conduction- molecular contact; from warm to cool; example spoon in coffee
Methods of heat transfer
3.
convection- vertical transfer; warm air expands and rises
Methods of heat transfer
4.
advection- horizontal heat transfer; wind
Methods of heat transfer
5.
latent heat of condensation- heat is released when condensation is occurring.
short-term variations in temp
1.
daily effects- maximum around 2:00-3:00 pm; lowest just after sunrise.
short-term variations in temp
2.
annual effects- warmest month is july or august
short-term variations in temp
3.
clouds- lower temperatures on a cloudy day; warmer on a cloudy night
short-term variations in temp
4.
land vs water- water (coastal) places have less extremes in temp
short-term variations in temp
5.
advection- wind
short-term variations in temp
6.
reflection- albedo, a low albedo produces a high (warm) temperature.
Lapse rates
the vertical distribution of temperature
dry adibatic lapse rate
5.5 degrees F/1000 ft
wet adiabatic lapse rate
3.2 degrees F/ 1000ft
dew point
that temp values at which condensation will occur.
temperature inversions-
a reversal of the normal vertical distribution of temp
subsidence inversion
common at 30-35 degrees N and S; occurs above the surface
surface inversion
occurs at ground level; common on cold, clear, still nights
inversions and air pollution
cause bad pollution problems
air drainage in hilly areas
cold air sinks
thermal belt
warm zone on the slopes above the frost pocket
frost pocket
at the bottom where the cold air accumulates
atmospheric pressure and winds
pressure- 14.7lb/sq in. one atmosphere
measurement of air pressure
mercury barometer-
standard seal level pressure
29.92 inches of mercury
millibars
1 inch-33.9 mb; standard is 1,013.25mb
aneroid barometer
a box with partial vacuum
barograph
an aneroid barometer with a clock device to make a continuous record
vertical variations in pressure
higher up means less pressure
horizontal variations in pressure: 2 causes
1. thermal- warm air rises; equator
2. dynamic- possibly due to earth rotation
idealized world pressure belts
1. equatorial low– trough– thermal
2. subtropical highs–30degN and S– dynamic
3. sobpolar lows–60-65degN and S– dynamic
4. polar highs–thermal cold
isobars
lines connecting points of equal pressure
lows
cyclones
highs
anticyclone
causes of wind
1. pressure gradient– from high pressure to low pressure
2. Coriolis effect-deflection to the right in the north hemisphere
3. other factors- friction
cyclones
lows–into in an counterclockwise spiral
anticyclones
highs–out of in a clockwise spiral
convergent circulation
cyclones(lows) at the surface
divergent circulation
anticyclones(highs) at the surface
wind terminology
1.name
2. windward
3. leeward
4. prevailing winds
1. after the source; north winds blows from north to the south
2. the side of a mountain facing into the wind
3. the back side of the mountain; the direction toward which it is blowing
4. blow more from one direction than any other.
Wind Measurement
1. wind vane
2.Anemometer
1. measures direction; points to the source
2. measures wind speed.
the earths surface wind system:
1. trades
2. doldrums
1. from teh subtropical hights to the equator
2. equatorial trough; intertropical convergence zone; calm.

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