Geography 12 Unit 1 Earth’s Surface and Tectonic Processes

Geography
aftershocks
series of less powerful earthquakes that follow the main quake and may continue for days
lithosphere
the solid outer crust of the earth
oil
a fossil fuel produced from the compaction of minute sea creatures on the sea floor
pyroclastics
refers to any material blasted out of a volcano
metamorphic
rocks that have undergone a change by heat, pressure, and chemicals inside the earth’s crust
sedimentary rock
one of the three main rock types that is created by sediment collecting in low-lying areas and is then slowly pressurized and compacted into layers
geysers
similar to a hot spring but a blockage occurs in the fault line where water and steam collect, pressure builds, water and steam are then forcefully expelled
nuees ardentes
superheated, denser than air deadly volcanic gas
scarp
steep cliff that is the result of vertical displacement of rock along a fault line
continental shelf
the flat shallow ocean floor next to the continent
lahar
mudflow caused when a volcano’s heat rapidly melts ice and snow on slopes of volcanoes
fissure
a long crack in the earth’s crust where lava may occasionally extrude from
centrosphere
the core of the earth
coal
a fossil fuel produced from the compacted and pressurized remains of tropical vegetation
orogenesis
the process of mountain building
igneous
rocks formed by the cooling and hardening of magma from within the Earth’s mantle
Pangaea
Alfred Wegener’s super continent from which today’s continents split and drifted to their present locations
asthenosphere
the upper part of the mantle where plates float
continental slope
the drop-off from shallow continetal shelf to the deep ocean floor
mesophere
the layer of the earth directly below the crust that extends to the outer core also called the mantle
sandstone, shale,
sedimentary rock
marble, quartzite, slate
metamorphic rock
coal, oil, natural gas
fossil fuel
basalt, gabbros
igneous rock
tear faulting
type of displacement that occurs at the San Andreas Fault
laccolith
a dome-like pooling of magma that occurs underground between rock layers
dike
a rock formation tha results when magma breaks across rock layers
sill
rock formation that occurs when magma intrudes between rock layers, cools, hardens, and may eventually be exposed by erosion
Richter Scale
measures the severity of earthquakes (each number 10 times larger than the previous)
focus
point on the earth’s surface where rock fractures resultin in an earthquake
igneous rock
hot springs and geysers associated with this type of rock
converging plates offshore
composite volcanoes along the Pacific Ring of Fire are the result of what kind of plate
converging continental plates
formation of the Alps and the Himalayas are the result of what type of plates
hotspot activity
the formation of the Hawaiian Island are the result of
asthenosphere
sphere located in the upper mantle in which convection currents are responsible for plate movement
metamorphic
rock classification that results from heat and pressure
anticline
the upfold of rock layers folded by compression
syncline
the downfold of rock layers folded by compression
igneous
rocks formed by the cooling and hardening of magma from within the Earth’s mantle
shield cone
ocean volcanoes with very gentle slopes
liquefaction
when some types of soils are shaken violently in an earthquake, causing the soil to behave much like quicksand, resulting in buildings toppling or sinking
caldera
a large volcanic crater created by a violent volcanic explosion or implosion
island arcs
feature found at an ocean to ocean plate convergence resulting in a string of volcanic islands
fold mountains
created when the earth’s crust is compressed and folded
outer core
area of the earth most likely responsible for creating the magnetic field of the earth
lithification
conversion of sediments into solid rock in the Rock Cycle
composite cone
a volcanic mountain composed of layers of cinders and lava (ex: Pacific Ring of Fire volcanoes)

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