Geography 150

Geography
Asymmetrical Warfare
Military action between a superpower using strategies dependent on high technology weapons and low technology and guerilla tactics used by small insurgent groups.
Bubble Economy
A highly inflated economy that cannot be sustained. Bubble economies usually result from rapid influx of international capital into a developing country.
Centrifugal Forces
Those cultural and political forces such as linguistic minorities, separatists, and fringe groups that pull away from and weaken an existing nation-state.
Centripetal Forces
Those cultural and political forces, such as shared sense of history, a centralized economic structure, and the need for military security, that promote political unity in a nation-state.
Colonialism
The formal, established (mainly historical) rule over local peoples by a larger imperialist government for the expansion of political and economic empire.
Core Periphery Model
A conceptualization of the world into two economic spheres. The developed countries of western Europe, North America, and japan form the dominate core, with less-developed countries making up the periphery. Implicit in this model is that the core gained its wealth at the expense of peripheral countries.
Cultural Imperialism
The active promotion of one cultural system over another, such as the implantation of a new language, school system, or bureaucracy. Historically, this has been primarily associated with European colonialism.
Cultural Nationalism
Primarily the visible and tangible expression of human settlement (house architecture, street patterns, field form, etc.) but also includes the intangible, value-laden aspects of a particular place and its association with a group of people.
Cultural Syncretism or Hybridization
The blending of two or more cultures, which produces a synergistic third culture that exhibits traits from all cultural parents.
Culture
Learned and shared behavior by a group of people empowering them with a distinct “way of life”; it includes both material (technology, tools, etc.) and immaterial (speech, religion, values etc.) components.
Demographic Transition
A four stage model of population change derived from the historical decline of the natural rate of increase as a population becomes increasingly urbanized through industrialization and economic development.
Economic Growth Rate
The annual rate of expansion for GNI.
Ethnic Religion
A religion closely identified with a specific ethnic or tribal group, often to the point of assuming the role of the major defining characteristic of that group. Normally, ethic religions do not actively seek new converts.
Globalization
The increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change.
GNI Per Capita
The figure that results from dividing a country’s GNI by the total population.
Lingua Franca
An agreed-upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics such as international business, politics, sports, or entertainment.
Nation-State
A relatively homogeneous culture group (a nation) with its own political territory (the state).
Overurbanization
A process in which the rapid growth of a city, most often because of in-migration, exceeds the city’s ability to provide jobs, housing, water, sewers, and transportation.
Rate of Natural Increase
The standard statistic used to express natural population growth per year for a country, region, or the world based upon the difference between bith and death rates. RNI doesn’t consider population change from migration. Though most often a positive figure (such as 1.7%), RNI can also be expressed as a negative (-.08%) for no-growth countries.
Squatter Settlement
Makeshift housing on land not legally owned or rented by urban migrants, usually in unoccupied open spaces within or on the outskirts of a rapidly growing city.
Sweatshop
Crude factories in developing countries in which workers perform labor-intensive tasks for extremely low wages.
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children who will be borne by women of a hypothetical, yet statistically valid, population, such as that of a specific cultural group of within a particular country. Demographers consider TFR more reliable indicator of population change than the crude birthrate.
Transnational Firms
Firms and corporation that, although they may be chartered and have headquarters in one specific country, do international business through an array of global subsidiaries.
Universalizing Religion
A religion, usually with an active missionary program, that appeals to a large group of people regardless of local culture and conditions, Christianity and ISlam both have strong universalizing components. This contrasts with ethic religions.

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