Triangular Slave Trade

The best-known triangular trading system is the Transatlantic Triangular Trade, that operated during the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, the Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe.


Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50 % of the crop).

White Flight

White flight is the sociologic and demographic term denoting a trend wherein whites flee urban communities as the minority population increases, and move to other places like commuter towns.

Blockbusting was a business practice of U.S. real estate agents and building developers meant to encourage white property owners to sell their houses at a loss, by fraudulently implying that racial, ethnic, or religious minorities — Blacks, Hispanics, Jews et al. — were moving into their previously racially segregated neighborhood, thus depressing real estate property values.
What are the 4 largest ethnic minorities and where are they in US?

1. hispanic

2. black

3. asian

4. native american

Hutu and Tutsi
The origins of the Tutsi and Hutu peoples is a key issue in the history of Burundi and Rwanda, as well as the Great Lakes region of Africa. While the Hutu are generally recognized as the ethnic majority of Rwanda, in racialist ideology the Tutsi were identified as a foreign race, as opposed to an indigenous minority.

Apartheid was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, born 18 July 1918,served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, the first South-African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election.

African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) has been South Africa’s governing party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party, since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994.

Nation State

The nation-state is a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit.The state is a political and geopolitical entity; the nation is a cultural and/or ethnic entity. The term “nation-state” implies that the two geographically coincide, and this distinguishes the nation state from the other types of state, which historically preceded it.

Baltic States

The Baltic states are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the European Union: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.


The Chechen Republic is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in Southeastern part of Europe, in the Northern Caucasus mountains

Nagorno Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.

Most of the region is governed by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, an unrecognized, de facto independent state established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR of the Soviet Union. The territory is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, which has not exercised power over most of the region since 1991.


Abkhazia is a region on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus whose status is disputed. It considers itself an independent state (the Republic of Abkhazia), but this is recognised only by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, South Ossetia and Transnistria, the last two of which are themselves in a situation similar to Abkhazia.

The Georgian government and most of the world consider Abkhazia part of Georgia’s territory.


Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.


Darfur is a region in Sudan. An independent sultanate for several hundred years. The region is divided into three federal states: West Darfur, South Darfur, and North Darfur


Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, comprising at least 85% of the world’s 1.5 billion Muslims.


Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam.


The Druze are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Jordan, whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of Islam.

East Pakistan

East Pakistan was a province of Pakistan between 1947 and 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal Province

Two Major Ethnicities In Sri Lanka

The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka, constituting 74% of the population



Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains.

Kurds and Kurdistan

Kurdistan literally meaning in Persian “the land of Kurds”, is the name for the first time coined and used in 1150 by the Seljuk Sultan Sanjar for designating a part of Western Iran

Ethnic Cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is a term that has come to be used broadly to describe all forms of ethnically-motivated violence, ranging from murder, rape, and torture to the forcible removal of populations. Defined more specifically as, “the planned deliberate removal from a specific territory, persons of a particular ethnic group, by force or intimidation, in order to render that area ethnically homogenous


Yugoslavia is a term that describes three political entities that existed successively on the western part of Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century.


Serbia, Montenegro

Dayton Accords

The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14, 1995. These accords put an end to the three and a half year long war in Bosnia, one of the armed conflicts in the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia.


Kosovo is a disputed territory in the Balkans. Its majority is governed by the partially-recognised Republic of Kosovo a self-declared independent state which has de facto control over much of the territory.


The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.


Balkanization, or Balkanisation, is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other.

English Branch

protogermanic to western germanic to english

Spanish Branch
italic to latin to spanish
Hindi Branch

Amerno-Aryan to Indo-Irani to Sanskrit to Hindi

Persian Branch

Armeno-Aryan to Indo-Irani to Old Iranian to Persian

Celtic Branch

Protoceltic to Brittanic to Celtic (there are 6 subtypes of celtic)

Languages in Belgium

Dutch, French, German

Languages in Switzerland

Italian, French, German, Romansh

Languages in Romania
Romanian and Hungarian
Languages of Canada

French and English


Basque is the ancestral language of the Basque people, who inhabit the Basque Country, a region spanning an area in northeastern Spain and southwestern France.

Lingua Franca

The original lingua franca referred to a mixed language composed mostly (80%) of Italian with a broad vocabulary drawn from Turkish, French, Spanish, Greek and Arabic. It was in use throughout the eastern Mediterranean as the language of commerce and diplomacy in and around the Renaissance era.


The Maori probably arrived in southwestern Polynesia in several waves at some time before year 1300, settled and developed a distinct culture.

Tibet and Dalai Lama

Tibet is a plateau region in Asia and a disputed territory, north of the Himalayas.


At various times from the 1640s until 1950s, a government nominally headed by the Dalai Lamas, a line of spiritual political leaders, ruled a large portion of the Tibetan region.

3 Major Branches of Christianity

Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism


Animism is a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment.


Shinto is the natural spirituality of Japan and the Japanese people. The word Shinto (“Way of the Gods”) was adopted from the written Chinese combining two kanji: “shin” meaning gods or spirits and “to(??), or “do” meaning a philosophical path or study.


Fundamentalism refers to a belief in a strict adherence to a set of basic principles, sometimes as a reaction to perceived doctrinal compromises with modern social and political life.


The Taliban is a Sunni Islamist political movement that governed Afghanistan from 1996 until they were overthrown in late 2001 during Operation Enduring Freedom.

Caste System

A caste is a combined social system of occupation, endogamy, culture, social class, and political power. Caste should not be confused with class, in that members of a caste are deemed to be alike in function or culture, whereas not all members of a defined class may be so alike.


In the Hindu religion, Brahman is the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe.


Untouchability is the social practice of ostracising a minority endogamous group by regarding them as “ritually polluted” and segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate. The excluded group could be one that did not accept the norms of the excluding group and historically included foreigners, nomadic tribes, law-breakers and criminals. This exclusion was a method of punishing law-breakers and also protected against contagion from strangers.

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west.

Two Major Religions of Ireland

Roman Catholicism and Protestantism

Irish Republican Army

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary military organisation. It was descended from the Irish Volunteers, an organisation established on 25 November 1913.

United Democratic Front (South Africa)

The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. The non-racial coalition of about 400 civic, church, students’, workers’ and other organisations. Was formed in 1983, initially to fight the just-introduced idea of the Tricameral Parliament


The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire or Ottoman State was an Islamic empire that lasted from 1299 to November 1, 1922 (as an imperial monarchy) or July 24, 1923 (as a state).


Palestine is a conventional name used, among others, to describe a geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.

West Bank

The West Bank is a landlocked territory and is the eastern part of the Palestinian territories; on the west bank of the River Jordan in the Middle East.


Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and, if including the area and population of occupied East Jerusalem, its largest city  in both population and area.

Golan Heights

The Golan Heights is a strategic plateau and mountainous region at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and remains a highly contested land straddling the borders of Syria and Israel.

Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. this small piece of land is home to about 1.5 million Palestinians.

Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai is a triangular peninsula in Egypt. It lies between the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and the Red Sea to the south, and is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia as opposed to Africa, effectively serving as a land bridge between the two continents.


Fata? is a major Palestinian political party and the largest faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. In Palestinian politics it is on the left-wing of the spectrum. Its main goal is the “complete liberation of Palestine, and eradication of Zionist economic, political, military and cultural existence.”


Hamas is a Palestinian Islamic socio-political organization which includes a paramilitary force, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.

Two Major Israeli Religions
Judaism and Islam
Republic of China

The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, is a state in East Asia comprising the island of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands, which are located off the east coast of mainland China.

Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant, delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization, saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations, and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel.


Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq, as well as some parts of northeastern Syria, some parts of southeastern Turkey.


Imperialism is “the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination.” Imperialism has been described as a primarily western concept that employs “expansionist ; mercantilist and latterly communist ; systems.

Unitary State

A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Many states in the world have a unitary system of government.

Federal State

A federation also known as a federal state, is a type of sovereign state characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the central government.


Gerrymandering is a form of boundary delimitation (redistricting) in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are deliberately modified for electoral purposes, thereby producing a contorted or unusual shape. The resulting district is known as a gerrymander; however, that noun can also refer to the process.


United Nations

The United Nations Organization (UNO) or simply United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.

Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War. In September 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. When United States military intelligence discovered the weapons, the U.S. government sought to do all it could to ensure the removal of the missiles.


Al-Qaeda is an Islamist group founded sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless arm and a fundamentalist Sunni movement calling for global jihad.

Osama Bin Laden

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden is a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian targets.

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