Geography 2- Zachey

Geography
What is the sub-solar point? What is special about equator?
Area where sun’s rays strike [email protected] 90 degress, most intense solar energy because it’s less spread out and moves through less atmosphere.
-HOWEVER: at equator there is less radiation than @ 30 degrees because of tropic cloud reflection.
What factors affect seasonality?
Solstice & Equinoxes- related to tilt of earth.
subsolar points shift creating seasons, moving “belts” of wet and dry during summer and winter
-based on axel tilt.
What are the latitudinal zones and where are they found?
-arctic & antarctic Circle(66.5)
-Tropics Cancer/Capricorn(23.5)
-Midlatitude region(NY/New zealand-34 to 55)
-Subpolar(55 to 65)
When is the worst day to get a sunburn in LA?
-June 21, the summer solstice. HOWEVER, there is a temperature lag and it doesnt get hot until later in summer.
What are the adiabatic processes?
-Air temperature controls ability of air to hold moisture.
-As air cools the ability to hold water decreases releasing it from clouds creating wet conditions.
-As are descends it heat up and ability to hold water increases creating dry conditions.
-THIS IS CAUSED BY PRESSURE CHANGE(Less high, more lower elevation)
What are the causes of precipitation?
Convection, orographic effect, frontal rainfall(when warm & cold air collide)
What is the Hadley Cell?
When the air rises in tropics causing rainfall and descending air in sub-tropics becomes dry.
What is the taxonomical hierarchy series?
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, kingdom.
What are the 5 kingdoms?
Platae, animalia, monera(bacteria), protista(amoeba), fungi.
What makes a species?(Species concept, evolutionary concept & genus concept)
Species concept= 3 Ideas: sharing of physical and/or behavior traits, ability to reproduce and produce fertile offspring.
Evolutionary= Direct & traceable ancestor-descendant relationship.
What makes a genus?
Collection of species related genetically to each other but who cannot interbreed(and have morphological differences)
How does the binomial naming system work?
-Invented by Carolus Linnaeus.
-Genus then species, latin and italicized
-Genus captilized, species not.
What are the photosynthetic Pathways(3)?
C3- Moderate light/temp, require high CO2, OLDEST(95% of Biomass)
C4- Highest rates, better in Tropics, needs lots of sun, MODERN
CAM- CO2 absorbed at night via stomat then used in C3 process during day(closed stomata), lowest rates,DESERT.
What is the energy efficiency between different trophic levels?
-Heterotrophcs(Primary consumers) & Autotrophs(Primary producers)
-Mammals(3%), Fish(10%), insects(39%)
Heliophytes vs. Sciophyes
-Heliophyes grow best in sunlight(C4 plants), high # of stomata for more CO2 and cooling.
-Sciophyes grow best in shade, broad leaves w/ lots of chlorophyll, greater sunlight capture, longer leaf life-span to conserve energy, tend to be perrenials.
-Sciophyes hurt by excess light.
What is the difference between Poikilotherms & Homeotherms?
Poikilotherms(COLD BLOODED)- Assume temp. of environment.
Homeotherms(WARM BLOODED)- maintain stable body heat.
What is the difference between Eurythermic and Stenothermic?
Eurythermic- tolerate wide range of temp. conditions.
Stenothermic- Restricted temp ranges; humans use clothing/fire
Adaptations in warm environments
-lower metabolic rates(to generate less heat)
-seek cool micro-climates
-Sweating/panting or Gular Fluttering(birds pulling in/out air)
-Increase surface area(elephant ears)
-Migration to different water depth(fish)
-Change color(chameleons)
Adaptations in Cold Climates
-Sunning(reptiles)
-Dormancy
-Fat & Fur
-“Anti-freezing” w/ glycerol or alcohol in insects/plants.
-Migration
What is Allan’s Rule?
-Body mass to surface area ratio!
-Compact body= lower surface area w/ less heat released.
-Thinner, elongated bodies open for area for heat release.
Moisture zone of plants(3)
Hydrophytic- constantly in water(lillies)
Mesophytic- Dont over/under water
Xerophytic- Love low moisture conditions.
What is the gradient concept?
Provides way to organize & consider relation of species to environmental factors.(Zones of optimum/stress/intolerance)
What strategies do Allelopathy Plants have?
-Coastal sage scrub: create “halo” around them where nothing grows due to oil on leaves that drop and mix with soil.
What are the different types of symbiosis?
Mutualism- Benefits both species, i.e.pollination: bee gets food, carries pollen for plant.
Commensalism: benefits 1 species, no impact on other(Clownfish/Anemone)
Parasitism: Benefits 1 species at expense of other
Mimicry: 1 species evolves to gain appearance behavior of another(2 types)..Muellerian: poisonous species looks like another one & batesian: Non-poisonous species looks like poisonous one.
Clements Model of Succession
-Succession is process through time evolving “Seres stages” annuals, perrenials, shrubs, woods, forest to “Climax community”.
-disturbances upset succession.
New model of Succession
Multi-path succession, disturbances may be instrument of maintaining ecological communities; i.e. fires.
Fire adaptations of plants
-Fire-resistant bark
-serotinous cones(Filled w resin only open in fire)
-Resprouting
Fire adaptations of plants
-Fire-resistant bark
-serotinous cones(Filled w resin only open in fire)
-Resprouting
What is Ecotone?
Boundary between 2 communities, is it transitional zone or whole new community-Gets best of 2 communities resource(i.e. forests/grasslands for deer)
Gleason View on Community vs. Clements
Clements= Climax community, where Gleason follows INDIVIDUALISTIC COMMUNITY CONCEPT: species merely co-exist in a similar area because they have similar resource requirements and ecological tolerance.
Anemochore dispersal strategies
Dispersed by wind; Dandelions, tumble weeds, spider.
-light seeds lack endosperm nuits, easily outcompeted, lower resistance to drying out, HOWEVER create lots of seeds, dispersal is random.
Zoochores dispersal strategy
-Dispersed by animals i.e squirrels w/ acorns.
-Exo: cling to coats of animals
-Endo: pass through gut
-Large seeds, invest a lot of energy, fewer seeds, dependant on animal(might not be around, go extinct)
Name the 3 types of Rainfall
-Convection: Rainfall caused by hot air rising, sun comes in heat ground up, transfer to air and moves up, expands and cools(adiabatic)releasing rain(TROPICS-HADLEY CELLS).
-Frontal: Warm/Cold air contact, warm air rises over cold, cools loses water.
found in: MIDLATITUDES(Mediterranean/Temp. rainforest)

-Orographic: Mtn. ranges, air rises cools, rain shadow effect.

Explain the Hadley Cell
Air rises in tropics, cools, dumps water, circulates North & South and sinks, heating, absorbing water, creating dry conditions.
-Influence of Hadley on Biomes: Creates tropical weather and also “global deserts” through adiabatic heating & Savannahs inbetween.
-Hadley cells shift up & down to follow subsolar point, pulling band of rain w/ it, giving savannahs wet/dry seasons.***
& plants/animals adapt to seasonality.
(COMMUNITIES)Super Organism concept vs. Individualistic Concept
SOC- Older view, CLEMENTS theory, species of community evolved together, each species has vital function like organ in body, if removed, community fails.
IC- New, Gleason theory, boundaries are blurry between communities, no distinction,
What are the 2 theories of succession?
Clements: CLIMAX COMMUNITY- Simple -> Complex, linear path; REGIONAL CLIMATE will tell us what climax community would be.
Gleason: Allow disturbances, fires to develop the community. Successional pathways not in one direction, can move back/forward,
What is Jump Dispersal vs. Diffusion
-Diffusion: starts from core area and gradually expands
-Jump: Leaps over a barrier(oceans)
-BOTH CAN WORK IN CONJUNCTION.

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