Geography

Geography
Absolute Location

 

exact place where a geographic feature is found (uses latitude and longitude)

 

Relative Location

 

location of a place compared to places around it

 

Geography
The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth
Hemisphere
One half of the globe
Equator
The imaginary line that divides the north and south
Prime Meridian
The imaginary line that divides the west and east
Latitude Lines
Lines that locate places north or south and that runs from east to west
Longitude Lines
Go around over the poles, locate places west and east
The five themes of geography

Location

Place

Region

Movement

Human-Interaction

Region
an area of the earth’s surface with similar characteristics
Functional region
A set of interactions and connections between places.
Perpetual Region
;A region in which people perceive, or see, the characteristics of a region in the same way
Globe
A three dimensional representation of Earth
Cartographer
tries to accurately reflect earth’s surface
Planar projection

projection on a flat surface, distorts shape and size

shows distance between 2 places

Conical projection

 

a projection onto a cone.  This projection shows shape fairly accurately, but it distorts the land masses at the edges 

looks at land masses extending over east and west

 

Cylindrical projection

 

a projection on a cylinder–the entire earth on 1 map

 

Landsat
A series of satellites; can scan entire planet in 16 days

 

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

 

 

a digital geographic database

Combines and displays information from many sources

 

Core

the center of the earth; made up of iron, nickel

Outer core is liquid; inner core is solid

Mantle

surrounds the core;

Has several layers contains most of the Earth’s mass

Magma

molten rock that forms in the mantle

Crust

thin layer of rock at Earth’s surface

Atmosphere

is the layer of gases surrounding the earth:

Contains oxygen

Protects Earth from radiation, space debris

Is the medium for weather and climate

Lithosphere

solid rock portion of earth’s surface; forms ocean floor

Hydrosphere

water elements on Earth including atmospheric water

Biosphere

atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere combined

Plants and animals live within biosphere

Continental Drift

1912 hypothesis of Alfred Wegener:

Earth once one supercontinent; Wegener calls it Pangaea, “all earth”

Pangaea splits into many plates that slowly drift apart

Solar System

Sun and nine known planets

Comets-icy spheres orbiting the sun

Asteroids-large chunks of rocky material orbiting the sun

Hydrological Cycle

cycle of water between atmosphere, oceans, earth

Evaporation from the land pumps 17000 cubic miles of water into the atmosphere every year.; The water evaporates from the land itself and from plants.; Evaporation from oceans and other bodies of water sends 102000- cubic miles of water into the atmosphere

Tributaries

smaller rivers, streams that feed into larger ones

Drainage basin

area drained by river and its tributaries

Ground water

water held in the pores of rock

Water table

level at which the rock is saturated

Landforms

naturally formed features on Earth’s surface

Continental shelf

sea floor from the continent’s edge to deep ocean

Sea floor has ridges, valleys, canyons, plains, mountain ranges

Islands are formed by volcanoes, sand, or coral deposits

Relief

difference in landform elevation from lowest to highest point

Four categories of relief-mountains, hills, plains, plateaus

Topography

configurations and distribution of landforms

Topographic map shows vertical dimensions, relationship of landforms

Plate movement

Spreading or moving apart

Subduction or diving under another plate

Collision or crashing together

Sliding past each other in a shearing motion

Fault

occurs when pressure causes rock to fracture, or crack

Earthquake

occurs when plates grind or slip at a fault line

seismograph

detects earthquakes and measures the waves they create

epicenter

the point directly above focus on the earth’s surface

tsunami

a giant ocean wave, begins at epicenter of an earthquake

Volcano

underground materials pour from crack in the earth’s surface

Most volcanoes occur at tectonic plate boundaries

Lava

magma that has reached the earth’s surface; may create landform

Ring of fire

zone around rim of Pacific Ocean

Robinson map

 

kind of cylindrical map

shows entire map

The landforms at the top and bottom appear to be flat

 

Interrupted map

 

shows entire earth

Distances are not correct

 

Weathering

processes that alter rock on or near the earth’s surface

Can change landscapes over time and create soil for plant life

sediment

mud, sand, silt created by weathering processes

mechanical weathering

processes that break rock into smaller pieces

Does not change rock’s composition, only size

chemical weathering

interaction of elements creates new substance

Warm moist climates produce more chemical weathering than cool dry

erosion

occurs when weathered material is moved by winds, water, ice, gravity

Movement grinds rock into smaller pieces, carries to new location

delta

A river, deposits sediment at ocean,

loess

wind blown silt and clay sediment: produces fertile soil

glaciation

changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers

glacier

large, long-lasting mass of ice, forms in mountainous areas

moraine

hill or ridge formed by rocks deposited by glacier

humus

which is organic material in soil

solstice

marks beginning of summer, winter

Rays directly overhead at noon at furthest points north and south

equinox

 

marks the beginning of spring and autumn

Day and night are equal in length

 

climate

weather conditions at one location over long a period

weather

 

atmospheric conditions at a particular location and time

 

precipitation

water droplets falling as rain, snow, sleet, hail

Convectional

Orthographic

Frontal

Three types of precipitation
Hurricanes (typhoons)

Form over warm, tropical ocean waters

Hit land with heavy rain high winds storm surge

tornado

a powerful funnel shaped column of spiraling air

Born from strong thunderstorms

Capable of immense damage

Blizzard
Heavy snowstorm with winds of at least 35 mph and reduced visibility
Convection

upward motion of air that transfers heat in atmosphere

Rain Shadow
dry area on the mountainside facing away from the direction of the wind. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems, casting a “shadow” of dryness behind them.
El Nino

winds push warm Pacific Ocean water toward the Americas

La Nina

winds push warm waters toward Australia and Asia

Greenhouse effect

the earth warms due to trapped solar energy

Tropical (low-latitude)

Dry

Mid-latitude

High-latitude

highland

Five general climate regions
Tundra

flat treeless ring of lands; around the Arctic Ocean

Very little precipitation; summer temperatures around 40 degrees Fahrenheit

Permafrost

 constantly frozen subsoil found in this region

Ecosystem

interdependent community of plants and animals

Biome

the ecosystem of a region

Deciduous

broadleaf trees; maple, oak, birch, cottonwood

Mostly in Northern Hemisphere

Rain forest

tropical forest covered with broadleaf trees

Coniferous

needle leaf trees; cone bearing; pine, fir, cedar

Mostly in northern hemisphere

Mixed forest
Deciduous and coniferous trees together
Savanna

a tropical grassland

Steppe

 temperature grasslands of northern hemisphere

Culture

Knowledge attitudes, behaviors shared over generations

Society

a group that shares geographic region, identity, culture

Ethnic group

shares language, customs, common heritage

Innovation

creating something new with existing resources

Diffusion

Spread of ideas, inventions, patterns of behavior

Cultural hearth

site of innovation origin of cultural diffusion

Acculturation

society changes because it accepts innovation

Dialect

a version of a language

Religion

belief in supernatural power that made, maintains universe

Birthrate

Number of live births per thousand population

Fertility rate

average, lifetime number of children born to a woman

Mortality rate

Number of deaths per thousand people

Immortality rate

deaths under age 1 per 1000 live births

rate of natural increase

figured by Subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate

population pyramid

shows a population’s sex, age distribution

Enables the study of how events affect population

2/3 of world’s population lives between?

30 degrees north and 60 degrees north latitude

push-pull factors

Reasons for migrating

population density

average number of people living in an area

carrying capcity

 the number of organisms an area can support

Affected by the fertility land, level of technology, economic prosperity

nation

unified group with common culture living in a territory

nation-state

A nation and state occupying same territory

democracy

citizens hold political power

monarchy

Political power held by a king or queen

dictatorship

 a group or individual holds all political power

communism

a government and economic system

Political, economic power held by government in people’s name

landlocked country

;has no direct outlet to the sea

May limit prosperity, as shipping and trade bring wealth

urban geography

the study of how people use space in cities

cities

populous centers of business, culture, innovation, change

suburbs

border central city, other suburbs

metropolitan area

Central city plus its suburbs and exurbs

urbanization

rise in number of cities, resulting lifestyle changes

central business activity

core area of commercial activity

economy

the production and exchange of good and services

economic system

way people produce and exchange goods, ser vices

Command economy
Production of goods and services is determined by a central government
Market economy (capitalism)
Production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers
Four levels of economy

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Quarternary

Primary level of economic activities
involves gathering raw materials for immediate use
Secondary level of economic activities

adds value to material by changing its form

;

Tertiary level of economic activities
involves business or professional services
Quarternary level of economic activities

provides information, management, research services

natural resources

earth’s materials that have economic value

infrastrucuture

basic support systems to sustain economic growth

Per capita income

average earnings per person in a political unit

Gross national product

Total value of goods, services, produced by a country, globally

Gross domestic product

 

Total value of goods and services produced within a country

 

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