Geography

Geography
Manufacturing Region
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. The major U.S. industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the states of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere.
Maquiladoras
Those U.S. firms that have factories just outside the United States/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. In such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the United States.
Outsourcing
Sending industrial processes out for external production. The term outsourcing increasingly applies not only to traditional industrial functions, but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations, where operating costs remain relatively low.
World Cities
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control and finance and commerce.
Labor-Intensive 
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
least cost location
(theory) the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
manufacturing export zones
a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
market orientation
the tendency of economic activity to locate close to its market
multiplier effect
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in a n activity. 1. In industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (such as a new plant opening) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and infrastructure growth. 2. In urban geography, the expected additional of non basic workers and dependents to a city’s total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment.
postindustrial
a stage of economic development in which service activities become relatively more important than goods production; professional and technical employment supersedes employment in agriculture and manufacturing; and level of living is defined by the quality of services and amenities rather than by the quantity of goods available
resource orientation
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
specialized economic zones
SEZ) – specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
substitution principal
the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location
threshold / range
(central place theory) – the maximum/minimum market possible/needed to support the supply of a product or service
time-space compression
a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached high levels of intensity
transnational corporation
(TNC) – a company that conducts research, oparates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
ubiquitous
present or existing everywhere
variable costs
a cost of enterprise and operation that varies either by output level or by location of the activity

Manufacturing/warehouse location (industrial parks, agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, and environmental considerations)

A feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby the host country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
Alfred Weber
Def:
A German economist who pioneered the least-cost theory of industry.
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
Allows open trade between the US, Mexico, and Canada.
ozone depletion
[image]is linked to the chlorofluorocarbons in spray cansm refrigerators, and plastic foam
Plant Location (Supplies “just in time” Delivery)
Minimizes in-process inventory by manufacturingon demand using quick communication and transportation. Importance: Very effective method of production, more so than Henry Ford’s method.
Refrigeration
A consistent cold temperature used to preserve perishable itemsduring transportation and storage. Importance: Allows for longer travel distance in trade and availability to distant markets, increasing potential demand.
Resource Crisis
Future shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy. Importance: Worldwisde lack of resource in extremely high demand.
Special Economic Zones (China)
these include the Pudong District, Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and the Hainan Province (all of these are coastal areas providing vital economic advantages for the country of China)
Topocide
Deliberate killing of a place throughinddustrial expansion and change so its landscape is destroyed.
Transnational Corporation
A corporation delivering serices to at least two countries.
Weight-Gaining
A product that, during production, gains mass. Examples: pop, cars, computers, etc.
Weight-Losing
A product that, druing production loses mass. Examples: sugar, coffee, lumber.
complimentary trade
when two regions specifically satisfy each other’s needs through exchange of raw materials and or finished goods

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