Geography 348

Geography

South Asia

(Physical Attributes)

(5)

Isolated

Mountain Arcs

River Plains

Peninsular Plateau

Monsoon Climate

South Asia Demographics

Rich/Poor

Population growth

Life expectancy

Urban/Agrarian

City population

(5)

Poor

Rapidly growing population

Low life expectancy

Agrarian

Overpopulated cities

South Asia Attractions

(3)

Culture is the main attraction

Religion

Natural Features

South Asia International Arrivals

(% of world travel)

1.1%

South Asia International Receipts

(% of world receipts)

2%
South Asia: Top 3 Inbound Tourism Destinations

India

Pakistan

Maldives

South Asia Top 3 Earners

India

Maldives

Sri Lanka

South Asia Top Spender
India

Source Countries for India

(3)

UK (former colony)

Bangladesh (neighbor)

US (exotic destination)

Purpose of Visit to India

(4)

Leisure (#1)

Exotic Nature

Business

VFR

The Golden Triangle

(3)

Delhi (Capital City)

Agra  (Taj Mahal and Red Fort)

Jaipur (Pink City and Hindu/Muslim Culture)

Health Tourism in South Asia

 

“1st world treatment at 3rd world prices”

Health Tourism Countries

(4)

India

Thailand

Malaysia

Philippines

Outbound and Domestic Tourism in India

(2)

Outbound: low, mostly middle class and wealthy

Domestic: higher than outbound pilgrimages are important

Constraints to Tourism in India

(3)

Political Unrest

Poor Relative Location

Infrastructure

Maldives Tourism

(2)

Big part of economy

Model of sustainable development

Source Countries for the Maldives

Asian (3) and European (5)

Japan, Korea, and China

Italy, UK, Germany, France, Russia

Nepal

(Physical Attributes)

(3)

Few natural resources

High elevation

Mountainous

Nepal Source Countries

(5)

India

UK

US

China

Japan

Nepal Visitor Profile

(3)

Young

Predominately male

Adventure tourists

Positives of Tourism in Nepal

(2)

Income

Jobs

Negatives of Tourism in Nepal

(3)

Trash

Environmental Degradation

Cultural Loss

The Sherpa of Nepal

(3)

Famous for mountain climbing

Exploitation

Dependent on tourism

SE Asia Sub-regions and Climate

(2)

Two Sub-regions: Peninsular and Insular

Climate: Tropical and Tropical Savannah

SE Asia Demographics

Population size

Growth rate

Fertility rate

Income

(4)

Relatively large population

High growth rate

High fertility rate

Overall low income

SE Asia People and Culture

(4)

Many ethnic groups

Diverse religions

Diverse economies

Colonial heritage

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

(ASEAN)

(3)

Promotes economic cooperation

Tourism is an important aspect

All countries members except Myanmar

SE Asia Regional Problems

(3)

History of political conflict

Environmental degradation

Cultural degradation

SE Asia International Arrivals

(% of world)

7%

SE Asia International Receipts

(% of world)

6%
Top 3 SE Asian Destinations

Malaysia

Thailand

Singapore

SE Asia: Top 3 Earners

Thailand

Malaysia

Singapore

SE Asia Top 3 Spenders

Singapore

Malaysia

Thailand

SE Asia Major Inbound Source Countries

(4)

Japan

Australia

W. Europe

US

SE Asian Disasters

(3)

SARS, 2003

Avian Flu, 2006

Tsunami, 2004

SE Asia Sex Tourism Stages

LEIR

(4)

Local prostitution

Economic colonialism and militarism

International tourist appeal

Rapid economic growth

Sex Tourism in Thailand

(5)

Long history

Vietnam War

Post-war sexual paradise

Government promotion

AIDS

Sex Tourism in the Philippines

(3)

Child Prostitution

Militarism

Women as commodities

China Demographics

Population Size

Life expectancy

Rich/Poor

Urban/Rural

(4)

Large population

High life expectancy

Majority are relatively poor

Less than 50% urbanized

Japan Demographics

Life Expectancy

Industrialized?

Rich/Poor

(3)

High life expectancy

Industrialized

Wealthy

Tourism in East Asia and Japan and China Outbound Travel

(3)

Fastest growing market

Japan has turned out a lot of outbound travel

China recent outbound travel

East Asia International Arrivals

(% of world)

12%

East Asia International Receipts

(% of world)

10%

Top East Asian Destinations

(6)

China

Hong Kong

Macau

Japan

South Korea

Taiwan

East Asia Top Earners

(5)

China

Hong Kong

Macau

Japan

South Korea

East Asia Top 3 Spenders

 

China

Japan

South Korea

Japan: Domestic Travel Attractions

(3)

History and Culture

National Parks

Hot Springs

Japan: Inbound Travel and Trip Purpose

(4)

Not a major destination

Leisure (#1)

Business (#2)

VFR (#3)

 

Japan Source Countries

(3)

Korea

China

US (#1 outside of region)

Japan Outbound Travel Destinations

(4)

China

South Korea

Hawaii

US Mainland

Government’s Role in Japanese Outbound Travel

Important Events

(4)

1964 Travel restrictions

Encourages people to travel abroad

1987 Ten Million Program

2007 Travel Initiatives

Japanese Restraints to Outbound Travel

(6)

The economy (recession)

Long work week

Sense of duty

Longer school year

Post-retirement jobs

Fear and safety concerns

Japananese Tourist Characteristics

(5)

Travel in groups

Packaged tours

Big spenders

Passive tourists

Photography

China Compatriots and Foreigners Definition

Compatriots: Ethnic Chinese living in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan

Foreigners: People traveling on non-Chinese passports

Tourism in China

Major Events

(4)

Open Door Policy

Tiananmen Square

SARS

Summer Olympics

China Inbound Tourists Source Countries

(4)

Japan

South Korea

Russia

US

China’s Historic Trade Routes

(3)

Grand Canal (Beijing to Shanghai)

Silk Route

Yangtze River Cruises

Hong Kong Tourism

Why do people travel there?

(3)

Transit area

Duty free city

Gateway

South Korea and Taiwan Tourism

(2)

Transition countries

Newly industrialized

Latin America: Languages Spoken

(Mainland and Caribbean)

Mainland: Spanish and Portuguese (European influence)

Caribbean: British, French, and Dutch

Latin America Demographics

Population Size

Population Density

Population Growth

(3)

Not very populated compared to size of landmass

High population density in fertile areas

Growing population

Latin America Economics

(3)

Varies by region and country

Dependent on commodity exports

Social disparities

Latin America Top 3 Inbound Tourism Destinations

 

Mexico

Brazil

Argentina

Latin America Top 3 Earners

Mexico

Brazil

Argentina

Latin America Top 3 Spenders

Mexico

Brazil

Argentina

Latin America Outbound Tourism

(3)

Fluctuates over time

Uneven and volatile economies

A few countries account for most travel

Latin America Contraints to Tourism

(4)

Relative Location

Economic problems

Personal safety/security/health

Political problems

Latin America Attractions

(3)

Sun, Sea, and Sand

Natural wonders

Cultural diversity

Caribbean Island Groups

(2)

Greater and Lesser Antilles

The Virgin Islands, Bahamas, and Bermuda

Coral Atoll

Elevation

Soil

Water

Example

(3)

Low elevation

Poor soils

Little drinking water

Kiribati, Marshalls, Tuvalu, Nauru

 

Volcanic Island

Elevation

Soil

Water

Example

(3)

High elevation

Rich soils

Good rainfall

Hawaii, Tahiti, Fiji, Samoa

Major Constraints to Tourism in Oceania

(3)

Relative Location

Intervening Opportunities

Connectivity

Economic Constraits in Oceania

(2)

Few natural resources

Capital shortages

The New Plantation Economy

(4)

Adds jobs

Doesn’t contribute to local resource development

Exploitive

Industrial contries dominate

Oceania International Arrivals

(% of world)

1.2%

Oceania International Receipts

(% of world)

4%
Oceania Top 3 Inbound Tourist Destinations

Australia

New Zealand

Guam

Oceania Top Earners

(2)

Australia

New Zealand

Oceania Top Spenders

(2)

Australia

New Zealand

Melanesia

(3)

Continental Islands

Adventure Tourism

Colonial Ties

Micronesia

(3)

Recieves most visitors of the island groups

Japanese Honeymoon

WWII sites

Polynesia Attractions

(3)

Sun, Sea, and Sand

Romantic Image

Variety of cultures

Australia Inbound Tourism Source Countries

(3)

New Zealand

UK

Japan

Australia Outbound Destinations and Purpose

(3 countries)

New Zealand

US

UK

Holiday and VFR

New Zealand Inbound Tourist Source Countries

(5)

Australia

UK

US

China

Japan

New Zealand Outbound Destinations

(5)

Australia

Fiji

UK

US

China

The 4 Major Global Tourism Flows

Between developed countries

Developed to less developed regions

Cold to warm

From urbanized

4 Major Types of Primary Destinations

VFR

Business

Mega-Events

Exotic/isolated locations

Law of Similarity
We percieve places as similar based on some similarities

Global Travel Patterns

(4)

International flows highly polarized

2 of 3 largest flows between US and Canada

Transatlantic

Large movements from Japan

Law of Proximity

We percieve things as close together

;

Law of Symmetry
We percieve objects as a whole

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