Geography Ch 9-Russia Today

Geography
comprises
made up of
privatization
transfer of ownership of businesses from the government to individuals where businesses compete with one another; introduced by the government after the fall of communism to create a market economy
middle class
social group that is neither rich nor poor but has enough money to buy cars, new clothing, electronics, and other luxury items
underemployment
workers are forced to take jobs that require less skills than they possess
pensioners
people who receive regular payments from the government because they are to old or too sick to work
heavy industry
production of goods such as machinery, mining, equipment, and steel; main type of industry under Soviet rule and communism
light industry
production or manufacture of consumer goods, such as clothing and household products; main type of industry after fall of communism
volume
amount
decrees
order issued by a leader that has the force of law; rulings made by a leader without the consent of the legislature
oligarch
member of a small ruling group that controls great power
deposit insurance
system which will repay people who deposit their money in a bank if the bank goes out of business to make people feel safer and more willing to use the banking system
unify
bring together
separatist movements
campaigns to break away from the national government and form independent countries
conduct
carry out
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Countries in fighting global terrorist activities.
price controls
official prices for different goods and services
market economy
prices result from competition among companies and from what consumers need, want, and are willing to pay
Boris Yeltsin
Russia’s leader when it was a Soviet republic and elected first president of Russia
federal republic
power is divided between national, regional, and local governments
Russian Federation
Russia’s official name
consumerism
the desire to buy goods
invest
to put money into businesses run by others in the hope of making even more money
Moscow Region
the political, economic, and transportation center of Russia where a large amount of manufacturing takes place nearby
Vladimir Putin
Russian President who took office in 1999, strengthened presidential powers, organized the country into seven large districts and appointed governors who supported his policies
Dmitry Medvedev
chosen President of Russia in 2008 in an election that critics claimed was neither free nor democratic
Chechnya
Muslim region near the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia where one of the most violent separatist movements began as a struggle against terrorism
command economy
Russias economy as part of the Soviet Union where the central government makes all the economic decisions
population decline
caused by low birth rates and rising death rates
decline in life expectancy
caused by poor nutrition, alcoholism, drug abuse, pollution causing lung diseases, and decreased government spending on health care
St. Petersburg
once Russia’s capital, major port and trading center located near the Baltic Sea, major industrial center, and cultural center known for its palaces and churches
Volga region
lies south and east of Moscow and a major center of manufacturing and farming
Volga River
a waterway vital to economic activities which supplies water for hydro-electric power and irrigation for farmers to grow wheat, sugar beets and other crops
Ural Mountains
major source for Russian resources including minerals (copper, gold, lead, nickel, and bauxite) and energy resources
Siberia
region with cold Artctic winds, rugged landscapes, and frozen ground making it difficult to take advantage of valuable resources such as timber and deposits of iron ore, uranium, gold and coal
czars
absolute rulers
glasnost
a russian word that means “openness”
perestroika
a Russian word meaning restructuring
civil liberties
individual freedoms
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
group of republics with communist government that was powerful, controlling nearly every part of Soviet society, and kept information secret from the outside world

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