Geography – Chapter 4

Population geography
Division of human geography concerned with distribution, composition, growth, and movement of populations
The scientific study of population
Record the frequency of occurrence of an event during a given time frame for a designated population.
A population group with a shared characteristic
Crude birth rate (CBR)
live births / population x 1,000 (crude)
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children that would be born to each woman if during her childbearing years she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age.
Crude d.eath rate (CDR)/mortality rate
A mortality index usually calculated as the number of d.eaths per year per 1000 population.
replacement level
The number of children per woman that will supply just enough births to replace parents and compensate for early d.eaths, with no allowance for migration effects, usually calculated at between 2.1 and 2.5 children.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
Population in equilibrium, stable. (plus immigration)
Population pyramid
A bar graph in pyramid form showing the age and composition of a population, usually a national one.
Dependency ratio
number of dependents / population(wage earners) x 100
Rate of natural increase
Birth rate minus the d.eath rate
(cbr – cdr)
Doubling time
The time period for any beginning total experiencing a compounding growth to double in size.
A curve shaped like the letter J depicting exponential or geometric growth. (1, 2, 4, 8, 16…etc)
Demographic transition
A m.odel of the effect of economic development on population growth. A first state involves stable numbers with both high birth rates and rates, the second displays high birth rates, falling rates, and population increases. Stage 3 shows reduction in population growth as birth rates decline to the level of rates. The fourth and final stage again implies a population stable in size but with larger numbers than at the start of the transition process. An idealized summary of population history of industrializing Europe, its application to newly developing countries is questioned.
Demographic equation
A mathematical expression that summarizes the contribution of different demographic processes to the population change of a given area during a specified time period. SEE OTHER CARD.
That part of the earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement; the permanently inhabited areas of the earth.
That portion of the earth’s surface that is uninhabited or only temporarily/intermittently inhabited.
Crude density/arithmetic density
The number of people per unit area of land.
Physiological density
The number of persons per unit area of cultivable land.
Agricultural density
The number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land
A value judgment that the resources of an area are insufficient to sustain adequately its present population numbers.
Carrying capacity
The maximum population that an area can support on a continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration. For humans, the numbers supported by an area’s known and used resources-usually agricultural ones.
Population projections
A statement of a population’s future size, age, and s.ex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data.
Thomas Robert Malthus
English economist, demographer, and cleric who suggested that unless self-control, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will inevitably increase faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it.
Leveling of an exponential/J-curve.
Homeostatic plateau
relatively stable state of equilibrium, to the balance between population numbers and resources. (carrying capacity)
The advocacy of population control programs to preserve and improve general national prosperity and well-being.
Population/demographic momentum
The tendency for population growth to continue despite family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
Demographic equation (specific m.odel)
P2 = p1 + B1-2 – D1-2 + IM1-2 – OM1-2, where P2 is population at time 2, p1 is population at beginning date, B1-2 is the number of births between times 1 and 2, D1-2 is the number of d.eaths during that period, IM1-2 is the number of in-migrants, and OM1-2 is the number of out-migrants between times 1 and 2.
Population density
A measurement of the number of persons per unit area of land within predetermined limits, usually political or census boundaries.

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