
Division of human geography concerned with distribution, composition, growth, and movement of populations 


The scientific study of population 


Record the frequency of occurrence of an event during a given time frame for a designated population. 


A population group with a shared characteristic 


live births / population x 1,000 (crude) 

Total fertility rate (TFR) 

The average number of children that would be born to each woman if during her childbearing years she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age. 

Crude d.eath rate (CDR)/mortality rate 

A mortality index usually calculated as the number of d.eaths per year per 1000 population. 


The number of children per woman that will supply just enough births to replace parents and compensate for early d.eaths, with no allowance for migration effects, usually calculated at between 2.1 and 2.5 children. 

Zero population growth (ZPG) 

Population in equilibrium, stable. (plus immigration) 


A bar graph in pyramid form showing the age and composition of a population, usually a national one. 


number of dependents / population(wage earners) x 100 


Birth rate minus the d.eath rate (cbr – cdr) 


The time period for any beginning total experiencing a compounding growth to double in size. 


A curve shaped like the letter J depicting exponential or geometric growth. (1, 2, 4, 8, 16…etc) 


A m.odel of the effect of economic development on population growth. A first state involves stable numbers with both high birth rates and rates, the second displays high birth rates, falling rates, and population increases. Stage 3 shows reduction in population growth as birth rates decline to the level of rates. The fourth and final stage again implies a population stable in size but with larger numbers than at the start of the transition process. An idealized summary of population history of industrializing Europe, its application to newly developing countries is questioned. 


A mathematical expression that summarizes the contribution of different demographic processes to the population change of a given area during a specified time period. SEE OTHER CARD. 


That part of the earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement; the permanently inhabited areas of the earth. 


That portion of the earth’s surface that is uninhabited or only temporarily/intermittently inhabited. 

Crude density/arithmetic density 

The number of people per unit area of land. 


The number of persons per unit area of cultivable land. 


The number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land 


A value judgment that the resources of an area are insufficient to sustain adequately its present population numbers. 


The maximum population that an area can support on a continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration. For humans, the numbers supported by an area’s known and used resourcesusually agricultural ones. 


A statement of a population’s future size, age, and s.ex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data. 


English economist, demographer, and cleric who suggested that unless selfcontrol, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will inevitably increase faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it. 


Leveling of an exponential/Jcurve. 


relatively stable state of equilibrium, to the balance between population numbers and resources. (carrying capacity) 


The advocacy of population control programs to preserve and improve general national prosperity and wellbeing. 

Population/demographic momentum 

The tendency for population growth to continue despite family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years. 

Demographic equation (specific m.odel) 

P2 = p1 + B12 – D12 + IM12 – OM12, where P2 is population at time 2, p1 is population at beginning date, B12 is the number of births between times 1 and 2, D12 is the number of d.eaths during that period, IM12 is the number of inmigrants, and OM12 is the number of outmigrants between times 1 and 2. 


A measurement of the number of persons per unit area of land within predetermined limits, usually political or census boundaries. 


