Geography Lab Final Review

The weight of the atmosphere
Air Pressure
Any instrument that measures air pressure
Measurement of altitude using air pressure
Lines that connect equal points of pressure
The change in atmospheric pressure over distance between areas of higher pressure and lower pressure
Pressure Gradient
Is determined by humidity and temperature characteristics of an air mass.
A ratio expressed as a percentage of the amount of water vapor that is actually in the air, compared to the maximum water vapor the air could hold at a given temperature.
Relative Humidity
When air is holding all the water vapor that it can at a given temperature
The temperature at which a given mass of air becomes saturated
Dew-point Temperature
The percentage of total air pressure including the water vapor in the air
Vapor Pressure
The maximum water vapor capacity of air (100% at that temperature)
Saturation Vapor Pressure
Measures that hair can change as much as 4% in length between 0% and 100% relative humidity.
Hair Hygrometer
Has two parts, the dry-bulb thermometer which records the surrounding air temp. and the wet-bulb thermometer.
Sling Psychrometer
The average decrease in temperature with increasing altitude (6.4 C per 1000 m)
Normal Lapse Rate
The actual lapse rate at a particular place and time
Environmental Lapse Rate
Used if the air is less than saturated. (10 C per 1000 m)
Dry Adiabatic Rate (DAR)
Used if the air is saturated. (6 C per 1000 m)
Moist Adiabatic Rate (MAR)
If the rising air is cooler than or the same temperature as the surrounding air
If the rising air is warmer than the surrounding air
If, in rising, the air becomes warmer than the surrounding air only after cooling at the MAR
Conditionally Unstable
Short-term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere
long-term average of weather conditions and extremes in a region
Scientific study of the atmosphere
Typically cold, dry and stable
cP (continental polar)
Hot, dry and stable
cT (continental tropical)
cool, moist and unstable
mP (maritime polar)
warm, moist, usually unstable
mT (maritime tropical)
Areas of similar weather statistics
Climatic regions
A classification based on causative factors (i.e. the interaction of air masses)
Genetic classification
A classification based on temperature and precipitation data; based on statistics or other data used to determine general categories
Empirical classification

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