Geography Rivers Terminology

Geography
River Regime
Normal activity of a river
River Discharge
Amount of water that flows through river bed
River Runoff
Amount of surplus water
Tributary
Stream or river that flows into a larger one
Hydrograph
 A graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time.
Percolation
Vertical movement or infiltration of water from the Earth’s surface to its subsurface.;
Surface storage
Part of precipitation retained temporarily at ground surface
Groundwater Storage
Groundwater storage;is water that is found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rock
Infiltration
The process of water entering soil
Soil Moisture Storage
Water found in the soil
Interception
When natural features such as leaves or trees stop water from entering ground
Throughflow
Horizontal movement of water through soil
Surface run-off
water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity
Transpiration
loss of water vapor from parts of plants
Evaporation
Vaporization of liquid’s surface
Channel Storage
The volume of water at a given time in the channel or over the flood plain of the streams in a drainage basin or river reach
Porous
When water goes through pores
Permeable
When water goes through spaces in rock
Bed
Bottom of river channel
Bank
Sides of river channel
Channel
Confines of river
Wetted Perimiter
Length of bed + banks in contact w/ river
Hydraulic Radius
Ratio between area of cross section and wetted perimeter
Rising Limb
The rising portion of the hydrograph resulting from runoff of rainfall or snowmelt.
Lag Time
The time between when a rainfall occurs, and when that water makes it to the river 
Recessional Limb
When the graph declines into normal state
Bankfull Discharge
the maximum discharge that a particular river channel is capable of carrying without flooding..
Baseflow

  • The amount of water in a stream that results from ground water discharge.

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