Geography Test 1

Geography
Absolute location
Determined by the intersection of latitude and longitude lines, providing an exact point expressed in minutes degrees and seconds
Age of Discovery
The 3-4 centuries of European exploration, colonization and global resource exploitation, led largely by merchants, started by Columbus and continued till 19th century
Age Sex Diagram (Population Pyramid)
The graphic representation of a country’s population by gender and 5 year age increments
Agricultural revolution
The domestication of plants and animals that began about 10000 years ago
Anthropocene epoch
A proposed new name for the present geological epoch, currently termed the holocene
Aquaculture
The cultivation of aquatic organisms such as fish for food
Atmosphere
The layer of gases surrounding earth
Biodiversity
The number of plant and animal species and the variety of the genetic material these organisms contain
Biodiversity hotspots
A ranked list of places scientists believe deserve immediate attention for flora and fauna study and conservation
Biome
A terrestrial ecosystem type categorized by a dominant type of natural vegetation
Biosphere
The global ecological system, including all the relationships played out among our hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. Also called ecosphere
Birth rate
The number of births per 1000 people in a population
Carbon Sink
An area such as a forest, farmland, or ocean that sequesters a large amount of carbon dioxide
Carrying Capacity
The size of a population of any organism that an ecosystem can support
Cartography
The craft of designing and making maps
Climate
The average weather conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and winds of an area over an extended period of time
Climate Change
A change in climate and atmospheric conditions largely due to carbon dioxide
Colonization
The European pattern of establishing dependencies abroad to enhance the economic development in the home country
Consumption overpopulation
The concept that a few persons, each using a few resources from ecosystems across the world, add up to too many people for the environment to support
Continental Drift
The steady but slow movements of the plates in earths mantle that formed continents mountains and oceans
Coordinate Systems
A grid consisting of horizontal and vertical lines used to establish absolute location
Cultural landscape
The landscape modified by human transformation, thereby reflecting the cultural patterns of the resident culture
Culture
The values, beliefs, aspirations, modes of behavior, social inquisitions, knowledge and skills that are transmitted and learned within a group of peopl
Culture hearth
An area where innovations develop, with subsequent diffusion to other areas
Death Rate
The annual number of deaths per 1000 people in a population
Demographic Transition
A model describing population change within a country, think of the natural evolution of a country
Demography
The study of population
Dependency Theory
A theory arguing that the worlds most developed countries continue to prosper by dominating their former colonies, the now independent less developed countries
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people often linked to the diffusion of knowledge and technology
Domestication
The controlled breeding and cultivation of plants and animals
Doubling Time
The number of years required for the human population of a given area to double
Dry Farming
Planting and harvesting according to the seasonal rainfall cycle
Ecological Bankruptcy
The exhaustion of the environmental capital, leading to potential political and social crisis
Ecological Footprint
The amount of biologically productive land needed to sustain a persons consumption and absorb wastes
Ecologically Dominant Species
A species that competes more successfully than other for nutrition and other essentials to life
Environmental Lapse Rate
The decrease of an atmospheric variable with height, the variable being temperature unless otherwise specified
Extensive land Use
A livelihood, such as hunting and gathering, that requires the use of large land areas
External Cost (externalities)
Consequences of goods and services that are not priced into the initial cost of those goods and services
Fault
A break in rock mass along which movement has occurred, rock being pulled apart = TENSIONAL, rock being pushed together = COMPRESSIONAL FAULT
Fertility Rate
the average number of children that would be born to her over her lifetime
Fish Farming
The cultivation of aquatic organisms such as fish for food
Food Chain
The sequence through which energy, in the form of food, passes through an ecosystem
Fuelwood Crisis
Deforestation in the less developed countries, caused by subsistence needs
GDP
The value of goods and services produced in a country in a given year
geography
The study of the spatial order and associations of things (enviroments, humans, land)
GIS
Geographic Information Systems are a growing field of computer assisted geographic analysis and graphic representation of spatial data
Global environmental change
The earth becoming warmer
Globalization
The spread of free trade, free markets, investments, and ideas across border and the political and cultural adjustments that accompany this diffusion
GNI
Gross national income, a measure of country’s wealth counting GDP plus income from abroad such as rents, profit, labor
GNP
Gross national product, the value of goods and services produced internally in a given country during a stated year plus the value resulting from transactions abroad
GPS
Global position system
Greenhouse effect
The observation that increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases in earths atmosphere cause a warmer atmosphere
Greenhouse gases
Gases such as carbon dioxide and methane that trap heat from the sun in the atmosphere
Hemispheres
Half of earths surface
Human Devlopment Index
A UN developed system that ranks countries based on quality of life issues along with economic performance
Hunter Gatherers
A mode of livelihood based on collecting wild plants and hunting wild animals, practiced by pre-agricultural peoples
Hydrologic Cycle
The process by which the sun evaporates seawater into water vapor that is later released as freshwater precipitation
Hydrosphere
All of the worlds water features
Industrial Revolution
A period beginning in mid 18th century Britain that saw rapid advances in technology and the use of inanimate power
International Data line
A line roughly concurrent with the 180 degree line of longitude where the beginning of one day and the end of another day meet
Intergovernmental panel on climate change
A UN panel composed of 2500 atmospheric scientists from 130 countries that stated global warming was real
Intensive Land use
A livelihood such as farming requiring the use of small land areas
Irrigation
The artificial placement of water to produce crops, generally in arid locations
Kyoto protocol
A treaty on climate change signed by 160 countries in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 and put into force in 2005, requires MDCs to reduce greenhouse emissions by more than 5 percent below their 1990 levels by 2012
Latitude
The horizontal lines across earth that measure how far north or south a place is
Less Developed Countries
The worlds poorer countries
Lifeboat Ethics
Ecologist Garrett Hardin’s argument that for ecological reasons, rich countries should not help poorer countries
Lithosphere
The rocky portion of earths surface
Longitude
The vertical lines across earth that measure how far east or west a person is
Malthusian Scenario
The model forecasting that human population growth will outpace growth in food and other resources, with a resulting population die off
map projection
A way to minimize distortion in one of more properties of a map (direction, distance, shape or area)
Marginalization
A process by which poor subsistence farmers are pushed onto fragile, inferior, or marginal lands that cannot support crops for long and that are degraded by cultivation
Meridian
Another term for lines of longitude
Migration
A temporary, periodic, or permanent move to a new location
Monoculture
The single-species cultivation of food or tree crops usually very economical and productive but threatening to natural diversity and change
More Developed Countries
The worlds wealthier countries
Natural Replacement Rate
The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used without decreasing its potential for renewal, aka sustainable yield
Natural Resource
A product of the natural environment that can be used to benefit people
Newly Industrializing Countries
The more prosperous of the worlds less developed countries
Oceans
a very large expanse of sea, in particular, each of the main areas into which the sea is divided geographically
Parallel
A latitude line running parallel to the equator
People overpopulation
The concept that many persons, each using a small quantity of natural resources to sustain life, add up to too many people for the environment to support
Permafrost
Permanently frozen subsoil
Plate Tectonics
The dominant forces in the creation of continents, mountains, and oceans
Pleistocene overkill hypothesis
A hypothesis stating that hunters and gathers of the Pleistocene era hunted many species to extinction
Population
all the inhabitants of a particular place
Population change rate
The birth rate minus the death rate in a population
Population explosion
The surge in earth’s human population that has occurred since the beginning of the industrial revolution
Population replacement level
The number of new births required to keep a population steady
precipitation
Water falling from the sky to the surface in the form of rain, sleet, snow or hail
Prime meridian
The line of zero degrees longitude in Greenwich, England, separates eastern hemisphere from western hemisphere
Pull factors
Factors which pull people away from their home
Purchasing Power Parity
A method of comparing the real value of output between different countries economics, considering factors such as differences in relative prices of goods and services
Push factors
Factors that push people away from their homeland
Refugees
Victims of sever push factors such as persecution, political violence, and war
Regions
A human construct of an area that is often homogeneous and distinct from other regions
Relative location
The location of a place defined by relationship to other places (A TOWN OR STATE)
Renewable resource
A resource with a continual supply available
Richter scale
A system for measuring the strength of earthquakes
Scale
The size ration represented by a map (i.e. 1 inch equals 100 miles)
Seismic Activity
Usually refers to tectonic forces that result in an earthquake
Spatial
The distribution of various features across earths surface
Subduction
The process of one tectonic plate descending below another
Sustainable Development
Concepts and efforts to improve the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems
Sustainable Yield
The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used without decreasing its potential for renewal
Tectonic Plates
The plates on which continents sit that move around in earths mantle
Tipping Point
The time beyond which some climate change effects are irreversible
Tsunamis
Large waves in the ocean created by undersea earthquakes
Urbanization
The population growth of cities, mostly from the movement of people from rural regions to built up areas
Value Added Products
Finished products, worth much more than the raw materials they were created from
Volcanism
Movement of molten material from the earths mantle, usually released through volcanoes
Wealthy Vs. Poor Countries
Weather
The atmospheric conditions prevailing at one time and place
Zero population Growth
The condition of equal birth rates and death rates in a population

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