Geography Test 2

Geography
Autonomous regions
A region of a country granted a measure of self-rule being fully independent of that country
Balkanization
The fragmentation of a political area into many smaller independent units, as in former Yugoslavia in the Balkan peninsula
Benelux
The name used to refer to Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg
Birth Dearth
The declining population of many euro countries due to low birth rates
Chernobyl
Nuclear disaster in 1986 Ukraine
CIS
Commonwealth of Independent States comprising former soviet states excluding Baltic countries (ELL)
Climates
The average weather conditions, including temperature, precipitation and winds of an area over an extended period of time
Cold War
Competition between US and Soviets after WWII-1991
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of plants and animals between Europe and Americas after Columbus’s voyages
Command Economy
Centrally planned economy representative of the Soviets, government determines everything
Devolution
Power being transferred from central gov to smaller portions of gov such as states
Economic Shock Therapy
Russia’s transition after USSR dissolution from command economy to free market, Boris Yeltsin oversaw
Estuaries
bodies of water and their surrounding coastal habitats typically found where rivers meet the sea
European Union
The Common Market began in 1950s comprising 27 nations
Euro
Currency under the EU, coin of the realm since 2002, not all nations accept
Glasnost
Policies introduced by Gorbachev in 80s, allowed more democratic political system, more expression, market oriented economy
Gulfstream
Ocean current running from US east coast eastward and reaches Europe, apart of North Atlantic Drift
Gulag
Work Camps under Stalin
Holocaust
Nazi attempted extermination of all jews, roma, and homosexuals
Industrial Revolution
Rapid advances in technology starting in Mid 18th century Britain
Icostatic Rebound
rebound of land compressed under ice during last ice age
Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto
Land Empire
The establishment of colonies in a continental hinterland as opposed to overseas
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, military alliance
North Atlantic Drift
Warm current from tropical Atlantic ocean that drifts north and east and moderates temperatures of western Europe, aka gulf stream
Peninsula
piece of land protruding into water
Perestroika
Movement for reformation within communist party of Russia under Gorbachev
Permafrost
Permanently frozen subsoil
Primate City
A city that dominates a countries urban scene and is larger than the countries 2nd and 3rd largest cities combined
Privatization
Shift of ownership of economic activities from state to non government
Religion
Most of Russia is eastern orthodox
Russian Cross
Dramatic rise in death rates and decline in birth rates after breakup of USSR
Russification
Effort to implant Russian culture into non-Russian regions of former USSR and eastern europe
Sacred Space
Any place that people hold in reverence, such as places of worship, cemeteries and battlefields
Second Russian Revolution
The collapse of the soviet union in 1991
Siberia
Part of Russia East of Ural Mountains
Site
The specific geographic location of a given place
Situation
The accessibility of that site and the nature of the economic and population characteristics of that locale
Supernationalism
Placing power in an organization that is in theory higher than the state (EU, NATO)
Taiga
A northern coniferous forest in Russia, Largest forest in world, 20% of worlds forest, half of coniferous trees
Ural Mountains
Mountains that divide Russia in half
Warsaw Pact
Former military alliance consisting of USSR and Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria

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