Geography test 2

the use of a currency other than the native one
columbian exchange
the exchange of goods ideas and disease between latin america and europe
the destruction of forrest to make way for grasslands that cows are put on
is the Mexican name for manufacturing operations in a free trade zone (FTZ), where factories import material and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly, processing, or manufacturing and then re-export the assembled, processed and/or manufactured products, sometimes back to the raw materials’ country of origin.
Sycretic religons
It applies to the process whereby all religions gradually adopt ideas from the religions of neighbouring peoples or of conquerors

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Mega Cities
cities with over 10 milliion people including, sao paulo, rio, mexcico city, and manila
Primate cities

is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy

include lima caracas guatmala city panama city santiago and mexico city

is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay
a person who half beaner half perfect
is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her home country
subnational organizations
organizations that are smaller than the national level
Supra national organizations
organizations that are larger than the nation
urban primacy
urban primacy indicates the largest city in a country
megaopolices of LA


Mexico City-Puebla-Toluca-Cuernavaca

Niteroi- Rio de Janeiro – Santos – Sao Paulo – Campinas

Rosario – Buenos Aires – Montevideo – San Nicolas




informal sector
is the part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government, or included in any gross national product (GNP),
Anglo American
Britsh Like
Ogalla Aquifer
under the great plains, water level has droppped 100 feet in past 50 years
exporting american culture
teaching internet media
North american consumption
5% of poppulationbut uses 25% of the worlds resources
Gateway cities
Maimi NYC L.A. San Fran
D.C. Philly Boston baltimore NYC 40 million people
the movement of jobs to another country due to cheap labor costs
urban decentralizaion
metro areas sprawl in all directions, suburbs emerge
counter urbanization
leaving larger cites for small towns
group of countries that hold most economic power Japan US Canada France Germany Italy and the UK
cultural assimulation
is a socio-political response to demographic multi-ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture
urban sprawl
the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city
lifestyle migrants
people wholeave the large cities and move to small towns, also know as participants in counter urbanization
negiative impacts of development
Downside of Development
• Native populations diminished
• Forests and grasslands denuded
– Settlers cut countless millions of acres of
forests and replaced grasslands
• Soil Erosion due to unsustainable farming
• Extinction of species
– Europeans brought new species
• Rivers diverted
• Natural resources wasted
cost of human impact on the land in north america, how many arces of farmland are converted each year to urban use
Urbanization changes the land ; 2 million acres of farmland converted to urban uses each year
population growth in US and canada between 1760 and 1860
; Canada ; 1760s ; 300,000 ; 1860s ; 3.2 million ; United States ; 1760s ; 2.5 million ; 1860 ; 30 million
reasons for population growth in the US
Contributions to Growth ; High rates of Immigration in 1890s ; 1900s ; Families having large number of children ; ;Baby Boom; ; Born after World War II between 1946-1965 ; 38 million foreign born immigrants live in NA ; Even larger when think about illegal immigrants
continental sweep how long did it take?
160 years to domesticate North American landscape ; Largest ; most rapid human transformation of landscape in history of human population
Fastest growing areas in north america
Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Alberta ; B.C.
how many pople move west annually
• 1 in 5 Americans move annually
Black exudous
• African Americans leaving the south
– Moving from the south to north for industrial
jobs to cities like Boston, New York, Detroit
• 1910-1920 & 1940-1960
– 1900, 90% of Africans Americans lived in
South, now only about 50% remain in the South
• Today reverse migration is occurring
consequences of urban sprawl
• Resources flee the city for suburbs
• Farmland converted
• Car dependency & longer commutes
• Inner cities deteriorate and crime rises
• Unemployment & Poverty rates in the
inner city increase
• Shrinking Tax Base
• Racial Tension and Segregation
Gentrification : movement of
wealthy individuals to run-down
inner city areas
• Ethnicity
– Group of people with common background and
history identify with one another; usually a minority
group in a larger society
5 phases of migration
peopling of canada, asians
Today about 60% of migrants are Asian ; Vancouver dominated by Asian populations ; 17% foreign-born ; Highest in the developed world
future cultural geography of the us, how many mexicans live in the us
; Hispanic population continues to grow ; 12 million Mexican-born residents ; More than 10% of Mexico;s population ; Mexican make-up 64% of Hispanic population ; Half of Hispanics live in Texas or California
who is the fastest growning groups of migrants in the US
by 2070 what percent of the population will be asian.
what percentage will be hispanic by 2070
cultural homelands
Place which an
ethnic group holds
a long history and
a deep cultural
association with
an example of a cultural homeland in the US and Canada
the Black belt US, Canada quebec
what is the worlds largest trading block?
the recives how much of canada exports?
canada recieves how much of the US exports?
what document extended the US’s reach?
the monroe doctriine
How many skilled worker visas did we give out in 2005 and where the majority of them from
North America has attracted many skilled
immigrants (400,000 H-1B visas in 2005)
• India the main origin of temporary skilled workers
US major exports, and canadas major exports
North America is a major importer and
– US exports cars, software, aircraft,
telecommunications equipment, food products,
and entertainment products,
– Canada exports grain, energy,
Latin America at glance how much of the worlds land area does it cover?
Latin America – At a Glance ?Roughly equal to the size of North America ?14% of the world’s land area
great latin american civilizations
Mayan and Aztec Empires in Central America
?Inca Empire in South America
who setteled latin america and what languges do they speak now?
Spain and portugal, 2/3rds spanish 1/3 portugese.
Dominat religon in Latin America
roman catholicism
how many people live in latin america
540 million
what percent of latin americans live in cities
latin america has historically relied on —– industries
the spanish empire concentrated on what natural resource
precious metals
what is portugals main export
sugar and coffee
Bananas republic
late 19th early 20th century, focused on bananas coffeewheat wool meat corn copper and oil
neoliberal policies
Neoliberal policies transfer control of the economy from public (government) to the private sector (MNCs)
how many poeple live on less than 2 dollars a day in latin america?
1 in 4
what percent of latin american people are in poverty
wha tpercentage of the worlds species live on tropical rain forests
neotropics are located where
between the tropic of capricorn and the tropic of cancer
neotropics inspired whos theroy
darwins theroy of evolution
enviormental issues in latin america
?Large size and low population density ?= moderated environmental damage ?Less environmental degradation than East Asia or Europe ?Huge areas relatively untouched ?Deforestation and loss of biodiversity are major environmental problems in Latin America
Destruction of tropical rain forests
• Causes: commercial logging, agriculture, settlement, ranching
how many plant animal and insect pecies are we losing per day and year
137, and 50000
many city dwellers live in what kind of settlements
Latin americas climate
?Temperatures have little variation
?Precipitation extremely variable
?Deserts near the coast
El nino
El Nino – warm current arrives along the cold waters of Ecuador and Peru
?Causes flooding and drought
when did the population of latin america begin to dramatically increase
1960s and 70s, 150million in 1950, 450 million in 1995
Mexico Brazil agentina and columbia account for how much of the population
where are most mega cities located
the coasts
Latin americas urban enviormental challenges
?Urban Environmental Challenges
?Pollution, inadequate water, garbage removal
?Industrial pollution
what kind of agriculture is primiarily used in latin america
subsitence ag.
when and how many europeans migrated to latin america
Greatest number went to Argentina,
19th and 20 century
Chile, Uruguay and Southern Brazil
?Approximately 8 million Europeans arrived
when did asian migration take place
late 19th early 20th centuries
latin america has more emigration or migration?
where do they emigrate to? and how much do they send back in rremmitances
North America, Europe, and Japan
65 million
who sends the most emigrats to the us
how many beaners live in the US
iberian colonialism
Iberian colonialism
?Shaped Latin America to the region we know today
?Forced assimilation of Amerindian societies
?African slave trade
?Demographic collapse of the native population
causes of native population decline
Causes: disease, warfare, forced labor, collapse of food production system caused decline
europeans and wetback brought what to the colubian exchange
Europeans brought:
?Broccoli, peas, etc.
?Olives & Grapes
?Pigs, cows, & horses
?Sugar & Coffee
?Amerindians provided:
?Maize / Corn
?Tomatoes & Potatoes
?Pineapples & Cacao
?Avocados & Hot Peppers
?Sunflowers & Peanuts
how long have most countires in latin america been independent
200 years
most coutries have gone to a democratic system in latin america when except what country
1980s and cuba
latin american trade blocs
Latin American Integration Association (formerly LAFTA)
?Central American Common Market (CACM)
?NAFTA (Mexico, United States, Canada)
?First trade area agreement between developed and developing states
?Mercosur countries are the EU’s largest trading partners in Latin America
the richest countries in Latin america are located where
the southern cone and mexico
who is latin americas least wealthy countries
nigragua boliva hondurus
what 2 countries have the largest economies?
brazil and mexico
?assembly plants on the border with the US
?More than 4,000 exist
5 phases of immgration
1800-1820 little immagration
1820-1870 western european immgration
1870-1920 largest influx of immigrants mostly easten and western europeans
1920-1970 little immigration
1970-now latinos and asians
North America and the Global Economy
– North America plays a pivotal role in the global
economy (along with Europe, Japan, and
Spurred the creation of the International
Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the
World Trade Organization (WTO)
continetal sweep 3 phases
Stage 1: 1600–1750:
Colonial footholds on
East Coast
• Stage 2: 1750–1850:
Infilling better eastern
farmland; Canadian
settlement slower
• Stage 3: 1850–1910:
Westward movement
for gold rushes and
other opportunities
acid rain
caused by pollution
Acid rain
• Affects plants, animals and
cost of human deveopment in us, water consumption
City dwellers use 175 gal/person/day; agriculture and
industrial uses average 1,500 gal/person/day
cost of human development how much does temp increase
9-14 degrees
who are the worst offenders of causes of human deveopment
houston, and LA

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