geography test 2

Geography
Dengue Fever (Hemorrhagic)
-spread by mosquitoes
-disease is present in areas such as spare tires where water has collected
-has a human host
-became more severe in more crowded conditions
Impact of Urbanization on Health
Good things:
-health services
-sewage systems
-vaccines: birth control, antibiotics.

Shanty towns : less developed, breeding grounds for disease

Biometeorology
the study of the relationship between living organisms and weather
Sun–> UV rays–> causes damage to skin and eyes
Sun–> visible light–>important for our biorhythms
SAD
seasonal affective disorder
is depression associated with late autumn and winter and thought to be caused by a lack of light.
Circadian Rhythms
circa=around
dian=day
-proteins in neurons
-infections and toxins have less effect at certain times
-jumping ahead on the clock

internal clock.. when you sleep, body temperature, etc.
24 hour rhythms

world population
7.2 billion
world population growth
1.5 % per year
mortality transition I
Life expectancy less than 35 years.
high death rates
Infectious disease
mortality transition II
lower death rate
infectious disease is handled with anti-biotics, vaccines, etc. (SANITATION)
Mortality rate III
degenerative disease is major cause of death (COD)
life expectancy extends to 65
Mortality rate !V
same except life expectancy extends to 70
-infant mortality is extremely low
Demographic transition
4 stages:
1- preindustrial stage: high birth rates high death rates.. no population growth/very little
2- early industrial: high birth rates and increasingly low death rates brought on by medicine.. high population growth
3- late industrial: decline of birth rates, low death rates..population growth but not as much as state 2
4- post industrial: low birth rates and low death rates.. no population growth.
Mobility Transition
I no individual migration, circulation for market purposes
II Rural to urban migration, agriculture frontiers. international migration Europe to USA
III Less international migration, less rural to urban, complete circulation, boarding schools
IV migration specialized, urban-to-urban migration, immigration is significant. retirement
nutrition transition
traditional diets of cereal and fibers to western diet
earlu US cities life expectancy
about 30
Domestic Animal Contact
diseases interchanged
as you domesticate animals, diseases will be more present in every day life
impact of road building
damage to environment
-good for health care? -transportation makes needs available
Malaysia Resettlement to Jungle Federal Land
the cause of relocations of locals to Malaysia: federal land development authority
-oil palms- rubber plantations
-changing gender roles, no shade, no fresh produce
Affluence Aggravating Malnutrition
as modernization occurs …
Desakota
many urban sprawl
-urban and agricultural forms of land use and settlement coexist and are intensively intermingled.
Land Use Changes and Rodents
increased urbanization.. buildings sewage systems increased the amount of rats
and that would cause an increase of spreading certain diseases.
Hanta
caused by exceptionally wet winter and spring in Arizona/new mexico
-increase of mice which spread the disease
Ebola
Outbreak in Zair cause by infected needle.
-vector is a fruit bat
Impact of Global Warming on Health
tropical disease affecting higher latitudes
-rising sea levels cause increased salivation of water
-increased amount of insects, hurricanes will cause more damage
electromagnetic radiation
UV rays, sunlight
UV Radiation
kills bacteria and viruses, wavelength is 234 nanometers
rickets
bone-deficiency disease
UVGI
ultraviolet geochemical radiation
Serotonin
produced in the morning
Melatonin
produced at night
Acclimatization
-how peoples internal bodies can adjust to long term changes in temperatures and altitudes
-larger lung capacity
-susceptibility to infections
heat waves
impact usually greatest in cooler climates
no air conditioning
locked permanently windows
climate vs. weather
climate is the study over a long period of time the weather patterns
weather is happening now
Simplified Ecosystems
humans tend to simplify the ecosystem they are dealing with

Forest: many species, slow growth, specialized niches, stable situation.

Naturally Occurring Toxins
Fungi, Dioxins, arsenic, radon
Human Synthesized toxins
organophosphates,
lead (retards red blood cell formation)
-copper metabolism–> neurological implications
toxins
substances dangerous in small qualities
(water, air, land, food, noise)
pollution
contamination, harmful in significant quality
smog
smoke.fog
ozone
o3 – makes up the ozone layer but is toxin to humans
NOx
NO2
comes from cars and trucks
VOCs
volatile organic compounds
Outdoor Air Pollution
the perception of the damage it does vs. the actual damage it does
People perceive it to be worse than it is
Particulates
little chucks of carbon
-less than 10 micrometers
SO2
sulfer dioxide — acid rain
cause by burning coal in electric power plants
-scrubbers (absorb all the bad pollutants, very expensive)
CO2
greenhouse gas
climate change
global pollutant
indoor air pollution
cigg smoke, dust, mold
-“sick building” syndrome
smoking map of US
highest percentage of smokers live in Tennessee, kentucky, west virginia
-west virginia has the highest
Lin-fen
produces the most coal in China
And is the dirtiest most poisonous city in China
-dirty coal, transportation, plants, water use
Highland cancer cluster
a wave of children diagnosed with leukemia
Brown Clouds over Asia
They sit over Asia– India/China
-20% less sun prior to industrial era (25 yrs ago)
-5% reduction in rice yield
-340,000 additional deaths over 5 years

Economic impact–> 82 billion per year drag
-may be slowing global warming… because brown clouds are reflecting more heat than trapping

Brown clouds over Asia
India/china
-20% less sun prior to industrial era (25 years ago)
-5% reduction in rice yield
-340,000 additional deaths over 5 years

Economic impact: 82 billion per year drag
May be slowing global warming
-brown clouds reflecting more heat than trapping

Water pollution
Minamata Bay
Japan 1950s
methyl mercury in the water
affected the fish (big source of protein for citizens )
-caused horrible acne
Radiation Impacts
ionizing radiation–. large doses, short time period–> radiation poisoning, cancer (thyroid
Landfills’ Impact on Health
3% of municipal waste is hazardous
-220 million tons of municipal waste
-CANCER
Noise Pollution Impact
-Tinnitus
-hearing loss
-children in noisier environments are weaker readers
-adenaline and cortisol are higher with noise
-blood pressure and heart rate go up
environmental justice
-cities, neighborhoods etc
-should have a voice in determining their land use
LULU’s
Locally unwanted land uses
-disproportionately in poor and/or minority communities
-rent low
-political power _____
Ionization in Atmosphere
positive/negative
many causes : UV rays, wind, thunderstorms…
IS an imbalance in change in atoms or molecules.

Positive ions -lack electrons
negative ions- extra elections

Ionization makes the blood more acidic. 7+ Acidic
7- Basic

Summer deaths
cholera, malaria, yellow fever
winter deaths
flu, strokes, colds..
Deseasonalized A/C, Heating
Flu Season
WINTER. because
1. dry = flu disease survival
2. dry nasal and throat membranes = easier virus penetration
3. Less sun UV
4. higher base metabolism more susceptible to flu
5. indoors and near
Spanish flu
1919-1920
Birth seasonality
U.S. –> Aug-Sept. peak

Jan.-Feb Mini peak

SUMMER CONCEPTION is less common –>heat

Development Authority
is legally separate from the city or county that establishes it.
Lassa Fever
acute viral hemorrhagic fever
-primary animal host is the mouse (sub-saharan africa)
-transmitted by contact with urine or feces
Agricultural Chemicals
chemical agents such as fungicides and insecticides that are used to control crop-harming organisms
Water Pollution
1800s–> Bacterial, viral contamination (still a concern in LDC)
since WWII (1940s)

Safe drinking water sanitization
-Bangladesh urb/82 rur/72……. urb/51 rur/35
-Burkina Faso urb/94 rur/54…….. urb/42 rur/6
China urb/93 rur/54………… urb/69 rur/28
India urb/95 rur/83 ……….. urb/54 rur/22

love canal NY
1979- high level of kidney cancer
East fishkill NY
community water got contaminated with toxic chemicals

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