Geography Test II

Geography

 

Shield Volcanoe



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  • gentle eruptions, lots of lava, but not explosive
  • Hawaiian Islands, esp. the Big Island


Composite Volcanoe


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  • very explosive, great destruction, can temporarily effect climate
  • Krackatoa, Indonesia
  • Mt. Saint Helens, Washington State
  • Mt. Vesuvius, Italy 



Ingeous Rock

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  • granite
  • formed from magma
  • granite from New Hampshire
  • basalt is black from volcanoes 

 

 

Sedimentary 

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  • coal and limestone
  • broken up rock, turns into sandstone
  • sedimentary rock is formed from living matter
  • limestone easily corrodes
  • Florida is mostly limestone, thus sinkholes

 


Metamorphic Rock

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  • two rock types put them under pressure 
  • changes the chemical composition of the rock
  • coal turns into diamonds

 

 

Weathering and erosion 

 

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  • nature has to be a balancing act of building and eroding away
  • Appalachian mountains, one of the oldest
  • highest mountain Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina
  • Mt. Washington, NH
  • not rising anymore due to subduction zone between Africa and North America 

 


Mechanical Weathering 


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  • rock heats up to expands when it cools and contracts
  • Scottish highland
  • Appalacian Mountains

 

 

Chemical Weathering 


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  • water mixes with limestone, acid eats away at the limestone
  • ex. sinkholes in Florida

 

 

Mass Wasting


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  • Colorado rivers flow from the Rockies to the Gulf of California in Mexico
  • fast flowing water, dry barren landscape allowing river to cut through rock
  • Grand Canyon , land rose, river cut through the area

 

 

Glaciations 


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  • happened 15,000 years ago
  • reason why we have thin soils 
  • bedrock exposed in many area=end moraines 
  • formation of Long Island, Block Island, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket
  • stoped for a while of Cape Cod=recessional moraine
  • New Jersey deposited thick layers of fertile soil=outwash plain

 

 

Coastal Erosion 

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  • Conneticut rocky shore, less sandy beaches than RI
  • Long Island Blocks a lot a wave action
  • RI has more sand, faces more open ocean



Long Shore Current


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  • current that goes along the shore, created many of the sand bar islands 
  • line the Mid Atlantic coasts and the Gulf of Mexico 


Cycles


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  • Hydrolic, Carbon, Phosphorous, Oxygen and Nitrogen
  • destroying the Rainforest has affected these cycles=no forest, the water runsoff, creating less evaporation=less rain
  • Hydrolic=rains, canopy captures moisture, reevaporates and falls as moisture again
  • forest absord carbon dioxide and give off oxygen
  • less forest=more carbon dioxide, less oxygen 

 

 

Food Chain

 

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  • producers
  • (grass, trees)
  • meat eating animals=carnivores
  • (coyotes, foxes)
  • grass eating animals=herbivores
  • (rabbits, deers)
  • anything eating animals=omnivores
  • (black bears, humans)
  • decomposers
  • (break down pland and dead animal material)

 

Food Chain cont.

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  • level of the food chain from the producers to the top is a tropic level
  • energy lost is 90 percent between each tropic level

 

 

Bioloigical Magnification

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  • toxic substance that enters the environment
  • example: the use of DDT’s effect on the bald eagle
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What was the National Geographic video called Wolves about?

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  • Reintroducing wolves into Yellowstone National Park;wolves were exterminated and the federal government removed in the1930’s
  • without the wolves the ecosystem suffered and comprimised growth of the forest with herbivore populations overgrazing
  • wolves were introduced to restore balance
  • the wolves only took out sickly herbivores, the reintroduction was deemed beneficial because it stopped the spread of diseased animals and but things back in balance

 

 

Renewable Energy

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  • sun, wind, wood, biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar
  • even though biomass and water are renewable they can become diminished

 

 

 

Non-Renewable Sources


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  • fossil fuels
  • formed from living things millions of years ago
  • when these sources run out, they will not be replacable 
  • fossil fuels produces 2/3 of world’s electricity 

 

 

Non-Renewable Sources

  • Biggest Reserves 
  • Natural Gas (Russia), Coal (United States), Oil (Saudi Arabia)
  • fossil fuel extraction can be destructive like blowing up mountains in West Virgina and Kentucky
  • Tar Sands in Alberta, Canada=boreal forest destroyed, chemicals pumped into the ground
  • 92 elements in the earth’s crust

 

 

Nuclear Power


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  • not a renewable source
  • positives of Nuclear Power generates a tremendous amount of electricity
  • lessens the demand for fossil fuels and oil imports
  • does not pollute the atmosphere
  • drawbacks are radiation 

 

 

Bio-energy



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  • is not enough land to produce enough fuel
  • competes with agricultural land for food
  • produces much less CO2
  • transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable ones
  • Brazilian rainforests are cut down

 

Hydro-power



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  • 98 percent of the U.S. are suitable rivers dammed from hydropower
  • Canada leads the way producing hydropower
  • benefits: more drinking water, no atmospheric pollution
  • downsides: disrupts river flow and sediment desposition, ex. southern Louisianna loosing land
  • Three Gorges Dam, China relocate 1 million people, pollutants, trapped in newly formed lakes

 

 

Landfills


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  • Largest landfill in RI is Central Landfill in Johnston
  • 1988 8,000 landfills, less than 2,000 landfills today
  • less landfills add stress and overfilling of existing landfills
  • nobody wants landfills in their backyard
  • Methane released and can provide power


Recycling



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  • 2009 34% of waste in the U.S. is recycled or composted
  • recycling does not safe a natural resources or the landscape
  • lesser amounts in landfills

 

 

Trash Incineration


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  • can burn trash to produce energy
  • not a problem with air pollution 
  • matter cannot be created or destroyed, burn’t garbage left over is highly toxic
  • now you have to dispose of hazardous waste 

 

 

 

Acid Rain


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  • burns super nitrogen and turns into sulphuric and nitric acid
  • In the US moves west to east, acidic rain falls mostly in eastern US
  • high elevations
  • Germany’s Black Forest
  • Sweden 10,0 dead lakes
  • a temporary solution is spreading lime in the lakes

 

 

Scituate Reservior 

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  • RI gets 60% percent of its water from the Scituate Reservior

 

Foresting


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  • Forest covers 1/3 of the Earth’s land surface
  • In RI we have Deciduous Broadleaf Forest covering 393,000 acres, which covers 59% of the state
  • Deforestation in Europe and North America, many forest today are recovering
  • Deforestation taking place in the Rainforest
  • Forest conservation is important there are 45 in RI
  • logging without destroying the forest=taking out dead trees

 

 

Sewer Treatment


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  • Sewer treatment in Narragansett Bay
  • system is 100 years old
  • combines municipal waste and sewer overflow CFO
  • bay is closed after heavy rain, no shellfising
  • overwhelms a sewage treatment plant, goes into the bay untreated
  • solutions: 1 did up every street make 2 seperate systems for every house=too expensive
  • northern part of the bay never be clean, too much runoff
  • 2. dig a tunnel underneath the plant which waste water goes into the tunnel and not the bay, sewage can gradually be brought up

 

Populations

  • Calculating population density=amount of people/Land area
  • 30,000/30=1000 per sq, mile
  • 1804-1 billion people, 1927-2 billion, 1960-3 billion, 1974-4 billion, 1987-5 billion, 1999-6 billion, and 2010-7 billion (increasing by 1 billion every 6-12 yrs)
  • most populated state=California
  • most densely populated state=New Jersey
  • least densely populated state=Alaska and Wyoming
  • fastest growing state=Nevada
  • most populous nations=China and India

 

 

Populations cont

  • birth rate-death rate=growth rate
  • takes 70 years for a population to double
  • TFR needs to be 2.1 to replace a population
  • developing nations will double within 22-35 years like Niger in Africa
  • the world’s populatin is declining, esp in Russia and Western Europe
  • US has highest population increase for an industralized nation due to immigration

 

 

Rhode Island Population 

1. RI is the slowest growing state

2. Massachusetts has the most raw numbers

3. Maine has the most land, but less people 

4. Vermont is the most densley populated state

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