Geography Vocabulary

Geography
Geography
the study of the Earth, its land and the proceses that shape it, the connections between places, and the relationships between people and their environment.
Globe
a round model of the Earth that shows the continents and oceans in their true shapes.
continent
one of the major land areas of the earth. There are seven: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and Antarctica.
oceans
the Earth’s largest bodies of water. There are four: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.
Equator
an imaginary line that circles the globe at its widest point (halfway between the North and South poles) diving the Earth into two halves called hemispheres; used as a reference point from which north and south latitudes are measured
Prime Meridian
an imaginary line of longitude or meridian that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich England; it is designated 0 degrees longitude and is used as a reference point from which east and west lines of longitdue are measured
meridian
an imaginary line that circles the globe from north to south and runs through both the North and South poles; the lines of longitude on maps or globes are meridians
parallels
in geography any of the imaginary lines that circle the Earth parallel to the Equator; a latitude line
cardinal direction
one of the four compass points; north, south, east and west
intermediate directions
any dierection between the cardinal directions such as southeast or northwest
compass rose
a map feature that usually shows the four cardinal directions
latitude lines
the series of imaginary lines, also called parallels, that circle the Earth parallel to the Equator; used to measure a distance north or south of the Equator in degrees
longitude lines
the series of imaginary lines also called meridians that run north and south from one pole to the other; used to measure a distance east or west of the Prime Meridian in degrees
degree
a unit of measure used to determine absolute location on globes and maps latitude and longitude are measured in degrees.
scale
the size of an area on a map as compared with area’s actual size
symbols 
are figures or pictures on a map that represent a specific thing
key
the selection of a map that explains the symbols for the map of features; also called a legend
political maps 
generally show political or human made boundaries between countries or regions.
psysical maps
show the physical features of an area, such as its mountains and rivers. the colors used for some features on physical maps are standard- brown or green for land, blue for water. they also use color to show elevation or the height of the area above sea level or the depth below sea level. 
climate
the weather patterns that an area typcially experienced over a long period of time. 

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