Geography Vocabulary

Geography
Geography
The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth
Latitude
Set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator
Longitude
Set of imaginary lines that go around the earth ad over the poles
Relative Location
Describes a place in comparison to other places around it
Linear Distance
How far across the earth a person, idea, thing or product travels
Map projection
A way of drawing Earth’s surface by presenting a round Earth on flat paper
Topographic map
Is a representation of natural and man made features on earth
GPS
Global Positioning System
Compass Rose
Points to North East South West , A compass
Prime Meridian
Imaginary line that divides the earth in East and West
Core
The center of the earth and is made up of iron and nickel
Atmosphere
Layer of gasses surrounding the earth, contains oxygen we breathe, protects earth from radiation from the sun and space debris and provides medium for weather and climate
Lithosphere
Solid rock portion of the earth’s surface, includes crust and uppermost mantle
Hydrosphere
Made up of the water elements on earth, includes oceans seas lakes rivers and water in atmosphere
Drainage basin
Area drained by major rivers
Ground water
Water held in the pores of rocks
Relief
The difference in elevation of landform from lowest point to its heights point
Continental shelf
The earth’s surface from from the edge of a continent to the deepest part of the ocean
Fault
The fracture when a rock that isn’t flexible breaks
Seismograph
Device that can detect earthquakes that are too slight for people to feel
Ring of fire
Zone around the rim of the pacific ocean, location of vast majority of active volcanoes
Mechanical weathering
Process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
Chemical weathering
Occurs when rock is changed into a new substance as a result of interaction between elements in the air or water and minerals in the rock
Delta
A fan like landform made of deposited sediments left by a river that slows as it enters ocean
Loess
Wind blown silt and clay sediments that produce very fertile soil
Moraine
Ridge or hill left by glacier that carried rocks
Humus
Amount of organic materials
Erosion
Occurs when weathered material is moved by the action of wind, water, ice or gravity
Sediment
Smaller pieces of rock
Lava
Magma that reached earths surface
Solstice
Two times of year when sun’s rays shine directly over head at noon at furthest points north or south, mark beginning of summer or winter
Equinox
The days and nights all around the world are equal in length
Weather
The condition of atmosphere at a particular location and time
Climate
Term for weather conditions at a particular location over a long period of time
Rain shadow
The land on leeward side, docent get much rain
Blizzard
Heavy snow storm with winds up to 35 MPH and reduce visibility
Convection
The transfer of heat by upwards movement of air
Tundra
Flat treeless land forming a ring around arctic ocean
Permafrost
Constant freeze of the subsoil
Semi arid
Characterized by relatively low annual rainfall of 25 to 50 centimeters
Ecosystem
An interdependent community of plants and animals
Deciduous forest
Forest with trees that have broad shape leaves mostly on warm areas
Coniferous forest
Forest with trees that have needle shape leaves mostly on cold areas
Continental divide
The line of heights points on North America that marks the separation of rivers floating east and west ward
Prevailing westerleis
Winds that blow from west to east
Everglades
Huge swamp land that covers some 4,000 square miles
Nomads
People who move from place to place
Beringia
A land bridge that once connected Siberia with Alaska
Canadian Shield
Rocky mainly flat covers over 2 million square miles around Hudson Bay
Locks
Sections of waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered
Migration
Movement of people within a country
Louisiana Purchase
Vast plain region between Mississippi and the rocky mountains, doubled the size of the US , was bought from France
Frontier
The free open land that had been available and suitable to settle in
Suburbs
Communities out side of the city
Representative Democracy
The people rule through elected representatives
3 branches of Government
Judicial:Supreme Court Reviews decision of lower courts and interprets laws, Federal, State , Local Courts

Legislative: Congress Enacts laws, House of representatives, senate

Executive: President carries out laws, Vice president, Executive departments, Administrative Agencies

Lewis and Clark Expedition
Expedition where 2 explorers Lewis & Clark explore Louisiana purchase for the 1st time in 1804-1806
Federal republic
Where powers are divided among the federal, or national government and various state governments
Llanos
Vast plains , grassy treeless areas used for livestock grazing and farming
Cerrado
Savannas with flat terrain and moderate rainfall, suitable for farming
Pampas
Areas of grasslands and rich soil
Rain forest
Dense forests made of different species of trees
Terraced farming
Ancient technique for growing crops on hill side
Slash and burn
Technique- cut down trees,bush, and grasses and burned the debris to clear the field
Push Factors
Factors that push people to leave rural area
Pull factors
Factors that pull people to cities
Infrastructure
Sewers, transportation, electricity, housing
Tourism
The commercial organization and operation of vacations and visits to places of interest
Fjord
Steep U-shapped valleys connected to the sea and filled with sea water , made by glaciers
Peat
Partially decayed plant matter found in bogs used as fuel in Ireland
North Atlantic Drift
A current of warm water from the tropics, pick up warmth from its current and carry it to Europe
Sirocco
Hot steady south wind that blows from North Africa across Mediterranean Sea into southern Europe
Mistral
A cold dry wind from the north
Polder
Land recovered from the sea by diking and draining
Dike
Earthen banks
Terpen
Sea-works and dikes and high earthen backs platforms
Acid rain
Mixture of rain or snow with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide
4 Large Islands in the North
Ireland, Greenland, UK, Iceland
City state
A political unit made up of a city and surrounding lands
Republic
A government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name
Crusades
A serious of wars to take Palestine from muslims
Renaissance
Period of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted 14th through 16th century which began in Italy
Aqueducts
Structures that carried water for long distances
Reformation
Period when Christians broke away from catholic church and started protestant churches
Feudalism
Political system in Europe in which powerful Lords owned most of the land
Nationalism
The belief that people should be loyal to their own nation
Bubonic plague
The most common form of plague in humans, characterized by fever, delirium, and the formation of buboes
Holocaust
A program of mass murder of European Jews, Handicaps and other minorities

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