Geoterms

Geography
Cartograph
A person who makes maps.
Geologist
One who studies the orgin, history and structure of earth.
Longitude
Measured East to West
Latitude
Measured North to South
Relative Location
Where a place is located relative to another location
Compass Rose
A diagram that shows North, South, East and West
Cardinal Direction

(North, East, South and West) 

 

Two short lines that cross as right angles (plus sign)  The points at the end are labeled North, East, South, West. 

 

These are the four main directions.

Intermediate Direction

A more complicated compass rose has lines between the cardinal points.  These lines show intermediate directions. 

 

They are northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.

map legends
A box or other display on a map that explains the meanings of the symbols used on the map.
Map Key
Another name for a map legend.  Describes the pictures/symbols that are used on a map.
Global Grid
The system of imaginary lines (called parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude) used to divide the surface of Earth on maps and globes.
Prime Meridian
Labeled 0 degrees from which all other degrees of longitude are measured.  The prime meridian passes through Greenwich, Englad.
International Date Line
The meridian of longitude located at 180 degrees.  By international agreement, the date is one day earlier to the east of this line.
Coordinates
a set of numbers that together describe the exact location of something, such as a place on a map.
Map Scale
An element of a map that shows how a unit of distance on a map (such as an inch) relates to actual distance on the surface of earth.
Hemisphere
One half of a sphere. Earth can be divided into eastern and western hemispheres or into northern and southern hemispheres.
Landmass
A very long unbroken section of land
Revolution and the Seasons
How the earth’s tilt creates the seasons during our planet’s year long trip around the sun.  Notice that the seasons are reversed in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Tropic of Cancer
The northernmost line of latitude where the sun’s rays ever beat down straight.  This line marks the northern limit of the tropical zone.
Tropic of Capricorn
The southernmost line of latitude where the sun’s rays ever beat straight down.  This line marks the southern limit of the tropical zone.
Tropic Zone
The area between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer and between the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, where the climate is generally hot.
Antarctic Circle
The line of latitude at 60 degrees/30 degrees that marks the boundary of the southern polar zone.
Polar Zones
The area between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole  or between the Antarctic Circle and hte South Pole, where the climate is generally cold.
Temperate Zone
The area between earth’s tropical zones and polar zones, where the climate is relatively mild.
Lambert Projections
A circular map that shows size accurately at its center, but not distance or shape.  Good for showing areas around the North or South pole.
Mercator Projections
Show directions, but distort size.
Map Projection
A way to deal with distortion. This is a particular way of showing Earth on a flat surface.

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