GIS FInal Exam!!!!

Geography
What is Raw Value in Spatial Analysis?
-Simple amount like population of state. usually symbolized by a proportional symbol on a map

>ex. 30 million people, 2 million barrels of oil production per year

What is Density in Spatial Analysis?
-Raw value divided by unit area, usually symbolized by shading on a cloropleth map

>ex. population per square mile

What is Dispersion is Spatial Analysis?
-Things that are dispersed in a polygon on a map.
What is Concentration in Spatial Analysis?
-Things that are more compacted together in a polygon on a map
What is Pattern in Spatial Analysis?
-Geometric pattern, or simply a description, of the shape of a geographic distribution

Ex. Linear, Regular Pattern (On a grid), Donut Pattern (Where the suburbs are on the outside ring and the city is in the inner ring)

Define what makes up Structured Query Language(Also known as Boolean Algebra) is.
AND= means both conditions, before and after the AND, must be met to be selected.
Ex. to select cities that are both at least 25% hispanic and having a median income below $50,000 : (pct_hispanic > 25) AND (med_income 100) OR (discharge > 1000)

NOT= means yes for the condition before the NOT, but no for the condition after the NOT

Ex. I want to select houses in a town that were built before 1800, but that are not considered historical : (building_date

What is Modifiable Area Unit Problem?
This means that results of analyses using polygon data may differ depending on the size/scale of the units of analysis.

you can get different results based on size and scale

Ex.a recent study of hazardous waste sites in Metro Cleveland was done to see if there was a correlation between the location of minority residences and the location of hazardous waste producers or disposal facilities

The analysis was done at 3 scales: zip code, census tract, census block (finest scale)

Results: Haz waste facilities were no more likely to be in heavily minority zip codes than in predominantly white zip codes

Results 2 : Haz waste facilties were more likely to be in heavily minority census tracts than in heavily white census tracts

Results 3 : Haz waste facilities were no more likely to be in heavily minority census blocks than in heavily white census blocks

Define Network Analysis?
Network analysis is analysis of linear phenomena like streams or roads

Applications include:
-Precise downstream flood forecasting 24 hrs ahead
-Finding the optimum location for a new school to minimize travel time for future students, or to minimize crossing large roads
-Real-time traffic congestion reports to suggest alternate routes for the LA fire department to get to emergencies

What is Ecological Fallacy?
assuming that the average value of a population is like everyone in that population.

Ex.The mean age for a city in Florida might be 45 yrs old, but I cannot assume the “average person” in that city is 45. In fact, the city might have nearly ? of its population over 60 yrs old and nearly ? of its population under 25 years old.

Likewise, a moderate avg household income could mean many rich, many poor, few in between

What is Remote Sensing?
Imagery from planes and satellites
What is Radial Terrain Distortion?
When images appear to be slanted away from the center of the photo based on the satellites position
What are Orthophotos?
photos that show map view
What are Stereophotos? (Think of a 3 speaker stereo)
These photos show a 3-dimensional image
What are the Principles of Aerial Photography? (There are 7 of them)
1. Shape 2. Size (You need to know what the Scale is)
3. Relative Location 4. Pattern
5. Texture
6. Color
7. Absolute Location
What is Ground Truth?
Checking from the ground for accuracy based on what is mapped out.
What does AVHRR photography display?
Vegetation
What kind of images are in Panchromatic Images
-Color Photos

-Black and White Photos

When we take Aerial Photos, What are we measuring and how is it displayed by color??
Energy

Displayed in this order:
UV, Blue, Green, Red, Inferred

Blue- Usually haze
IR- Usually Vegetation

visible light is between .4 micrometers(blue) and .7 micro meters(Red)

What is False-Color Imaging?
This is when you take the Blue out of the spectrum in order to make the image less hazy.

Remember that red means high vegetation!

What was LANDSAT first known as?
ERTS 1, which was launched in 1972
What is the color spectrum for Multispectral Images?
Blue, Green, Red, IR 1, IR 2
What does MSS stand for and what is its zoom capacity?
-Multi-Spectral Scanner

> 80m

Define LANDSAT 5
Made in 1984 and is still working!
Define LANDSAT 6
-30m
-Thematic Mapper
-Never made it into orbit 🙁
Define LANDSAT 7
-Up in orbit but has some glitches
-created in 1999
-enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) 15 meter res.

-All Landsats were altitude of orbit of 438

Define SPOT
-French
-Went up in 1986
-Higher Resolution
-Pan of 10m
-Push-broom sensor
-27 degrees off the nadir (point below satellite)
What is IKONOS?
-Commercial earth observation satellite

-First to collect publicly available high-resolution imagery

-1 meter is PAN
-4-meter resolution is MSS.

-It offers multispectral (MS)and panchromatic(PAN)imagery.

-Altitude of orbit- 423

What is GEOEYE?
-Replaced IKONOS and Quick Bird
-Has Panchromatic at .5 m
-MSS 1.6m
-Altitude of orbit- 423 miles
What is GOES?
-Its a weather satellite
-it moves with the earth, its geo synchronies, it spins with the earth
This is a sensor of water vapor, temperature.
Spatial Resolution
Distance on one side of a pixel in a satellite image or digital aerial photo.
Spectral Resolution
Satellites with higher spectral resolution break up the electromagnetic spectrum more finely so that a user can distinguish features on the surface more precisely.

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