Global: Early Africa

Geography
Sahara
In North Africa, world’s largest desert. Camels used to get across
Savanna
Grassy plains that cover 1/2 of Africa.
Sahel
Area of plains and shrubs between the Savanna and Sahara. Is becoming desert.
Desertification
Being weathered, becoming part of desert.
Escarpments
In the southern third of Africa, high cliffs that are used as a barrier.
Cataracts
Waterfalls and rapids, caused by escarpments.

North: Hot and dry

South: Hot and moist

Climate of Africa
Nomadic lifestyle
Moving from place to place to follow food.
Bantu
Example of nomadic lifestyle
Settled lifestyle
Stayed in one place, domesticated animals, farmed and had permanent houses.
Clan
A group of people from a common descent.
Animism
African “religion”, belief of spirits in nature and of one superior God.
Griots
Storytellers
Patrilineal
Inheritace passed through father’s side
Patriarcal
Male-dominated family.
Matrilineal
Tracing ancestory through mother’s relatives.
Lineage
People, common ancestors, blood line
Aksum
In SE Nubia, extended from mountains of present-day Ethiopia to the Red Sea. Descendants from African farmers and people from the Middle East
Adulis
Port on Red Sea, capital of Aksum
Ezana
Brought Christianity to Aksum
Stelae
Stone pillar to celebrate achievements
Christianity
Askum converted to this religion, at frist strengthened ties with North Africa and Medditerrranean. Old temples were replaced by churches.
Successfull trading center and remained Christian.
Achievements (Aksum)
Hatshepsut
Female ruler of Egypt, encouraged trade and not war
Nubian kingdom of Kush
Ancient kingdom of upper Nile located in present-day Sumer
Piankhi
Kush king, united Nile and conquered Egypt
Meroe
Nubia’s capital after move, trade center
Bantu
The root of West African language.
South and out of the Sahara
Migration (Bantu)
Culture (Bantu)
Skilled farmers, ironworkers and domesticators (settled lifestyle).
Great Zimbabwe
Deseased powerful, prosperous capital of great inland empire 900-1500 AD.
Massive stone walls, palaces and cone-shaped towers. Rich with gold fields.
Zimbabwe looked like:
UNKNOWN, could’ve been taken over or have outgrew itself.
What happened to Great Zimbabwe?
What European country interfaced with Benin?
Portugal
Ghana
From 700-1000 AD West Africa, known as”Land of Gold”. The kingdom created after uniting many farm villages, located in the “V” made by Niger and Senegal Rivers.
Salt, gold, taxed traders.
Trade (Ghana)
Age-Set
Everyone born in a certain year has certain priveledges.
Cosmopolitan
City life
Swahili
Arabic and Bantu blended, from trade.
Mali
1235-1400 AD, Sundiata was a ruler.
Mansa Musa
King of Mali, doubled size of Mali, religious tolerance
Timbuktu
Mansa Musa went here.
Songhai
West Africa, 1400-1592 AD
Sunni Ali
Founded Songhai
Askia Muhammed
Ruler of Songhai, converted to Muslim
-Moroccans
-Songhai lacked modern weapons such as guns and gun powder, Moroccans had these
Who conquered Songhai and how?
Benin
1300’s AD, had lots of bronze, contact with Portugal
Hausa
Farm village, not seen as major African civilization

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