Hallden GGS101 Exam 1

Geography
Geography
study of place/space
answers where/why
Classifications
realms/regions based on spatial criteria
Realms
largest geographic unit as a result between physical/human environments based on natural/cultural criteria
Functional Interactions
things like farms, mines, etc.
Historical
places with substantial human presence
Transition Zone
places without sharp division lines where criteria changes gradually rather than sharply
Regions
areas marked by certain properties based on own human/physical criteria
Formal Region
marked by certain degree of homogeneity
Functional Region
marked by dynamic internal structure
spatial system around a core
Hinterland
means “country behind”
surrounding area served by urban center
Urban Center
focus of goods/services produced in hinterlands
Cartography
science of making maps
First Map
made around 1562 with lots of artistic things
Map
carefully designed instrument for recording, calculating, displaying, and understanding the interrelation of things
Locations
latitude/longitude
x/y coordinates
Attributes
characteristics, qualities, magnitudes, names, data
can be shown as dots, lines, filled areas, volumes
Things Derived from Attributes
distance, area, direction ,adjacency, patterns, networks, interactions
1854 Map of London
P marked water wells
each dot represent residence of person who died from cholera
All Maps are Reductions
omit details, simplify reality, smaller than region portrayed
level of detail depends on purpose
Geometric Transformations and Distortions
involved in all maps
map projections, transferring globe to flat plain
distorted in area, shape, distance, angles
Scale
large scale – shows small area (1/50k)
small scale – shows large area (1/2mil)
types: graphic, verbal, fraction
Classes of Maps
based on subject matter
General Reference Map
portray spatial arrangements of selection of diverse phenomena
eg: topographic maps, atlases
Thematic Map
concentrate on spatial variations
form of a single phenomena or relationships among several
eg: population, diversity, political
Map Limitations
only as good as provided info
Physical Geography
includes study of natural landscapes
physical base of location, mountains, rivers, plains, valleys, coast, etc.
Continental Features
all continents have plains and plateaus and all except Africa are divided by mountain ranges
Continental Drift
explains distribution of major mountain ranges
land masses float on crust (tectonic plates)
plates move slowly and direction varies
Plate Movement (Spreading)
plates move apart
most common on ocean floor
new crust forms in ridges
eg: mid atlantic ridge
Plate Movement (Subduction)
plates move together
denser rocks go underneath
crust melts/rises
creates mountain ranges and volcano chains
eg: pacific northwest
Ring of Fire
plate movement triggering earthquakes and heavy volcanic activity
Climate
has major impact on society/landscape
continually changing
looks primary and temperature and precipitation over time
Glacial Period
last one ~18,000 years ago
ice sheets, lower temps, lower sea levels
Annual Precipitation
amount of precipitation in a year
locales along equator have a lot
Koppen and Geiger
classes which climates around world are based on
Humid Equatorial (A)
tropical
year round high temps
heavy precipitation
Dry (B)
in both north/south latitudes
BW – true desert (extreme daily temps and >4″ rain)
BS – semiarid (about 10″ rain)
poor soils
Humid Temperate (C)
frequently in mid-latitudes
consistent temps
coastal areas more moderate
fertile soils
Humid Cold (D)
continental effect
only in norther hemisphere
low precipitation
excellent soils b/c of dormancy
Cold Polar (E)
tundra
only a few months below freezing
Highland (H)
topographic extremes
eg: mountains
Cultural Geography
wide-ranging and comprehensive field that studies spatial aspects of cultures
components: cultural landscapes, hearths, regions
not mutually exclusive
Cultural Landscapes
human imprints of earth’s surface
“The form superimposed on the physical landscape by activities of man.”
Cultural Hearth
early source areas where new ideas, innovations, and ideologies formed and radiated out
Political Geography
subfield in human branch of geography
interaction of geographical area and political process
Nation
a group of people with shared cultural traits and customs
State
politically organized, sovereign gov’t, internally recognized, permanent population, organized economy, internal circulation
Nation-State
country whose population possesses substantial degree of homogeneity and unity
Stateless Nation
nation of people with no politically defined state
Population Distribution
4 major clusters: East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Northeastern USA
90% of population live north of equator
80% of landmass in northern hemisphere
90% of population lives on 20% of land
Economic Development
core areas of development
peripheries of poverty and underdevelopment
categorized by political boundary
cores and peripheries have strong regional disparities
average standard of living masks wealthy core and very poor
Major Geographic Qualities of Europe
western extremity of Eurasia
lingering world influences
high degree of specialization
manufacturing infrastructure
37 nation-states
urbanized population
high standards of living
Physical Landscapes of Europe
alpine system
western uplands
central uplands
north european lowlands
Relative Location of Europe
heart of land hemisphere
every part close to sea w/ navigable waterways
moderate distances in between
Spatial Interaction
movement across geographic space involving contact of people in 2+ places for purpose of exchanging goods/ideas
Complementarity Spatial Interaction
two places, through an exchange of goods, can satisfy each others’ demands
Transferability Spatial Interactoin
ease with with a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost
rivers, mountain passes, road networks improve it
Agrarian Revolution
began in Europe in 1750s based on new agricultural innovations
enabled increased food production/sustained population increase
Von Thunen’s Isolated State
classic model in geography made in 1826 explaining economic patterns in developing Europe
land is a function of transportation costs
foundation for modern location theory
Industrial Revolution
develop in UK between 1750-1850
evolved from technical innovations in UK industry
produced distinct spatial pattern in Europe
Cities
political designations
Municipal Entity
governed by some kind of administrative organization
Primate Cities
a country’s disproportionately largest city which is expressive of national culture
eg: London, Paris
Population of Europe
falling share of world’s population
births at all time low
fewer young people
smaller working age population
Supranationalism
venture involving 3 or more states
political, economic, and cultural cooperation to promote shared goals
problems: loss of autonomy, disparities in level of economic development, technical barriers, cultural barriers
Devolution
transfer of power from central to local governments
Germany
strongest economic state in Europe
France
Paris has high GDP
Benelux Countries
relatively flat, coastally oriented
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
highly specialized
Alpine States
Switzerland, Austria
highly specialized
British Isles
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Ireland
Northern Europe
Norway, Finland
Baltic States
Lithuania: lost independence 1940, regained in 1941
Latvia: similar to Lithuania, constitute bare majority in own country, Kaliningrad (Russian Enclave)
Periphery
states asociated with ocean
Mediterranean Europe
discontinuous region
cultural continuity dates from Greco-Roman times
Mediterranean Climate – hot, dry summers, warm, cool, moist winters
Italy
most populated Mediterranean state
most economically advanced
sharp North/South contrast at Ancona Line (symbolic division of north/south)
Milan – largest city with manufacturing and financial center
Vatican City
independent entity
enclave within Rome
Centrifugal Forces
forces dividing countries
eg: religions, linguistic, ethnic, ideological
Centripetal Forces
forces that unite and bind a country
eg: strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, common faith
Irredentism
policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country
Ethnic Cleansing
forcible ouster of entire populations from their homelands by stronger powers bent on taking their territories
Balkanization
divide into smaller mutually hostile states or groups
initially applied to Balkan Peninsula then turned into verb
Former Yugoslavian States
Slovenia – first to secede, ethnically homogeneous
Croatia – 85% Croat
Bosnia – landlocked and central position
Serbia – largest and most poplous
Kosovo – declared independence Feb 2008
Montenegro – peacefully split from Serbia Jun 2006
Macedonia – broke from Yugoslavia 1991
Albania – 70% muslims, 2nd lowest econ rating
Poland – classic nation state
Czech Republic – region’s most westernized
Slovakia – less developed, more rural
Hungary – nation-state

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