Human Geography

Geography
Accessibility
The opportunity for contract or interaction from a given point or location, in relations to other locations.
Capitalism
A form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and the exchange of goods by private ownership
Cognitive distance
The distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation
Cognitive images (Mental maps)
Psychological representations of locations that are made up from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations
Cognitive space
Space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and religions
Distance-decay function
The rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance
Economies of sale
Cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
Formal region
Groups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features
Friction of distance
Deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity
Functional region
Regions with some variability in certain attributes but with an overall coherence to the structure and dynamics of economic, political, and social organization
Geodemographic research
Study of census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts to create profiles of those populations for market research
Geographical imagination
Capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions
Geographic information system (GIS)
Organized collection of computer hardware, software, and geographic data that is designed to capture, store, update, manipulate, and displace geographically referenced information
Global Positioning System (GPS)
System of satellites that orbit Earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information
Globalization
Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
Human geography
Study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments
Identity
Sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relations
Infrastructure (fixed social capital)
Underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
Intersubjectivity
Shared meanings among people, derived from their lived experience of everyday practice
Irrendentism
Assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally
Latitude
Measure north or south from the equator. Equator, Capricorn, etc.
Lifeworld
taken-for-granted pattern and context for everyday living through which people conduct their lives
Longitude
Measured east and west from the Prime Meridian, passes through Greenwich, England
Neoliberal policies
Economic policies that are predicted on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life
Ordinary landscapes (vernacular landscapes)
Everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives
Physical geography
Subarea of the discipline that studied Earth’s natural processes and their outcomes
Place
Specific geographic setting with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes
Region
Larger-sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere
Regional geography
Study of the ways unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
Regionalism
Feeling of collective identity based on population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
Regionalization
Classification of individual places or areal units
Remote sensing
Collection of information about parts of Earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor systems
Risk society
Contemporary societies in which politics in increasingly about avoiding hazards
Sectionalism
Extreme devotion to local interests and customs
Sense of place
Feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it
Site
Physical attributes of a location–its terrain, its soil, vegetation, and water sources, for example
Situation
Location of a place relative to other places and human activities
Social relations
Spatial analysis
Study of geographic phenomenon in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map
Spatial diffusion
Way that things spread through space and overtime
Spatial interaction
Movement and flows involving human activity
States
Independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
Supranational organization
Collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature
Symbolic landscapes
Representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public
Time-space convergence
Rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs
Topological space
Connections between, or connectibility of, particular points in space
Utility
Usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group
World region
Large-scale geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major groupings of peoples with broadly similar cultural attributes

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