Human Geography

Geography
Core Periphery Model

A model that describes how economic, political, and cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions

Peters Projection
a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world’s landmasses
Mercator Projection
 maps that show true direction and land shapes fairly accurately, but not size or distance. Areas that are located far from the Equator are quite distorted on this type of map
Fuller Projection
Maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses. Rearranges direction so the cardinal directions no longer have any meaning

                                 Goode’s homolosine projection

shows continents but distorts ocean
Robinson Projection
Does not maintain accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each
Scale
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and he actual size of that same area on the earth’s surface
Isoline Map
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
Cartogram
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
Dot Density Map
Thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable in a given area
Proportional Symbol Ma
A thematic map in which the size of a symbol varies in proportion to the frequency or intensity of the mapped variable.
Chloropleth Map
 each unit area is shaded or colored to suggest magnitude of the event or item within its borders. Patterns or colors are used o show magnitude or intensity
Malthus Population Catastrophe
the global population would one day expand to the point where it could not produce enough food to feed everyone
Neo- Malthusians
Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations
Boserup’s Hypothesis of Population
Population growth compels subsistence farmers to consider new farming approaches that produce enough food to take care of the additional people
Population Pyramid Components
shows percentage of population in 5-year age groups, with the youngest group at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top
Population Pyramid Example Shape
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Demographic Transition Model
the steps through which a society progresses
DTM Visual
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Epidemiologic Transition Model
There is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model
ETM Visual
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Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction
estimate the flow of people, material or information between locations in geographic space
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
  1. Net Migration amounts to only a fraction of the gross migration between 2 places
  2. The majority of migrants move short distances
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than people in rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition
change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that produce the demographic transition
MTM Visual
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Indo European Language
languages from the indo-european family
I-E Language Diffusion Theories
Agriculture theory
theory that explains how Proto-Indo-European languages diffused into Europe. Said it occurred through the diffusion of agriculture. Each generation (25 years) the agricultural frontier moved 11 miles
Conquest Theory
One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European language diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues.
Domino Theory
The theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes
Heartland Theory
Theory that claimed whichever state controlled the resource-rich “heartland” of Eastern Europe
Rimland Theory
Theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia (the “rimland”) would provided the base of world conquest (not the heartland)
Rank Size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
World Systems Theory
Three tier structure theory (core, semi-periphery, periphery) proposing that social change in the developing world is linked to the economic activities of the developed word
WST Visual
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von Thunen’s Agricultural Model
Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost,distance of land to market is critical because the cost of transporting varies by crop
von Thunen Visual
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First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Third Agricultural Revolution

Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms
Liberal Models of Development
Assomes all countries are at the same stage of development and any economic differences must be from short term inefficiencies in the local or regional market
Structuralist Model of Development
think that poorer countries will have a difficult time improving their situation due to the structured global economy’s concentration of wealth and unequal relations in some places
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
Rostow’s Stages of Growth
A model of economic development that describes a country’s progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed countries to most-developed countries
Fordism

form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Post-Fordism
adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to team that perform a variety of tasks
Location Interdependence Theory
suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other’s territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base
Weber Model of Industrial Location
explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors
Weber Visual
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Profit Maximization
The correct location of a firm lies where the net profit is greatest 
Bid-Rent Theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases
Bid Rent Visual
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Borchert’s Model of Urban Evolution
refer to four distinct periods in the history of American urbanization. Each epoch is characerized by the impact of a particular transport technology on the creation and differential rates of growth of American cities
Central Place Theory
a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in an urban system
CPT Visual
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Concentric Circle
This concentric ring model depicts urban land use in concentric rings: the Central Business District (or CBD) was in the middle of the model, and the city expanded in rings with different land uses
Concentric Model Visual
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Sector Model
It is a modification of the concentric zone model of city development. The benefits of the application of this model include the fact it allows for an outward progression of growth.
Sector Model Visual
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Peripheral Model
basically features an amount of economic activity in one main area surrounded by a remote area of less dense activity
Peripheral Model Visual
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Multiple Nuclei Model
while a city may have started with a central business district, similar industries with common land-use and financial requirements are established near each other
Multiple Nuclei Model Visual
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Urban Realms Model
Describes automobile-dependent metropolitan areas· Large, self-sufficient suburban sectors · 4 criteria shape the extent, character, ; internal structure of each urban realm:(1) terrain (topography, water)(2) size of metropolis(3) amount of economic activity in each realm(4) internal accessibility of each realm based on its dominant economic core
Urban Realms Model Visual
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Latin American Cities Model


Combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones

Latin American Cities Model Visual 


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SE Asian Cities Model

The Southeast Asian City Model is similar to the Latin American (Griffin-Ford) City Model in that they each feature high-class residential zones that stem from the center, middle-class residential zones that occur in inner-city areas, and low-income squatter settlements that occur in the periphery
SE Asian Model Visual
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African City Model
Africa has the world’s lowest levels of urbanization yet the most fastest growing cities. African cities have a high range of diversity so formulating a model is difficult. The neighborhoods are ethnic and mixed, often next to a mining and manufacturing zone. All of that is then ringed around by a zone characterized by squatter settlements and informal satellite townships
African City Model Visual
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