human geography test 3

Geography
is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs
State
means control of its internal affairs without interference by other states
sovereignty
is a synonym for state
country
does not refer to local governments such as those inside the united states
state
how many states were in the UN in 1945?
50
originated in ancient times in the fertile crescent
city-states
developed in curope through consolidation of kingdoms
states
a sovereign states that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside
city-state
was organized into a succession of empires by the sumerians, assyrians, babylonians and persians
mesopotamia
consisted of a collection city-states including athens, corinth, and sparta
ancient greece
lost their independence during the fourth century when they were ruled by macedonian kings
greek city states
collapsed in the fifth century after a series of attackes by people living on its frontiers and because of internal disputes
the roman empire
the right to govern themselves within sovereign states
self-determination
is a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethinicity that has been transformed into a nationality
nation-state
good example of a nation state because the territory occupied by the danish ethnicity closely corresponds to the state oof
denmark
contains two or more ethnic groups with traditional of selfetermination
multionational
best example of a multinational state until its collapse in 1991
Unions of Soviet Socialist Republics
3 baltic states from soviet union
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
3 european states from soviet union
Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
five central Asian states from soviet union
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
3 caucasus states from soviet union
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
worlds largest multinational state
Russia
what is the main reason why borth korea and south korea cant get along?
North Korea
most soverign state in africa
sahrawi arab democratic republic
only land mass on earth’s surface that is not part of a state
antartica
Argentina, Australia, and the united kingdom claim portions of what country
antartica
provides a legal framework managing antartica
antartica treaty of 1959
a signature signed by 158 countries has defined waters extending various distances from coastlines of states
law of the sea
is a territory that si legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent
colony
is the effortm by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory
colonialism
3 reasons why european states did exploration
– god, glory, gold
entities that domnto classify as colonies
– greenland
– hong kong
they have long and narrow shape
Elongated states
example of elongated states in africa
– gambia
– malawi
includes several discountinous pieces of territory
fragmented state
2 types of fragmented states
– fragmented states separated by intervenign state
– fragmented states separated by water
an example of a fragmented state separated by another state would be
Angola sparated by the congo
an example of a fragmented state separated by water would be
tanzania in africa
compact state with a large projecting extension
prorputed state
– to provied a state with access to a resource such as water
– to separate two states that otherwise woudl share a boundry
2 reasons why prorputed states are made
the distance from the center to any boundry does not vary significantly
compact state
lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by other countries
landlocked state
are especially common in sub-saharan africa
landlocked states
a state that completley surrounds another one
perforated state
example of a perforated state
south africa completely surrounds lesotho
an invisible line marking the extent of a state’s territory
boundary
2 types of boundries
– physical
– cultural
coincide with significant features of the natural landscape
physical boundries
follow the distribution of cultural characteristics
cultural boundries
they make effective boundaries because they had to cross and sparsely inhabited
desert boundries
effective boundry since they are difficult to cross
mountain boundry
rivers, lakes, and oceans are commonly used as boundries because they are readily visible on maps and aerial imagery
water boundries
2 types of cultural boudnries
– geometric boudnries
– ethnic boudnries
part fo the northern U.S. boundry with canada is a 2,100- kilometer straight line along 49 degress north latitude, running from lake of the woods between minnesota and manitoba to the strait of georgia between washington state and british columbia
geometric boundry
boundries between countires have been placed where possible to separate ethnic groups
ethnic boundries
is a zone where no state exercise complete political control
frontier
is the drawing of legeslative boundries to favor the party in power
gerrymandering
the process of redrawing legislative boundries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power is called
gerrymandering
3 forms of gerrymandering
– wasted vote
– excess vote
– stacked
spreads opposition supporters across many district as a minority
wasted vote
concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts
excess vote
links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundries
stacked vote
gerrymandering became illegal in
1985
after WW2 most european states joined 2 military alliances
-NATO
– Warsaw Pact
– had united states and 14 western european allies and canada in it
NATO
the soviet union and six eastern european allies in it
warsaw pact
is a condition of roughly equal strength between opposing forces
Balance of power
during the cold war era the 2 balance of powers were
united states and soviet union
a major confronting during the cold war between the united states and soviet union came in 1962 when soviet union places nuclear missle in cuba
Cuban missle crisis
U.S. secretary of state colin powell spoke about how there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq
Iraq’s alleged weapons
is the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands
terrorism
attempt to achieve their objectives through organized acts that spread fear and anxiety among the population
terrorists
they consider violence necessary as a means of bringing widespread publicity to goals and grievances that are not being addressed through peaceful means
terrorists
the most dramatic terrorists was
911
– known as the unabomber
– was convicted of killing 3 people and injuring 23 others by sending bombs through the mail during a 17 year period
– his targets were mainly academics in technological disciplines and executives in businesses
Theodore J, Kaczynski
was convicted and executed for the oklahoma city bombing and for assisting him terry the first
Timothy McVeigh
responsible or implicated in most of the anti-U.S. terrorism
Al-Qaeda
responsible for the 911 attack
Al-Qaeda network
– founder of Al-Qaeda
– issued a declaration of war against the united states in 1996 because of U.S. support for Saudi Arabia and Israel
Osama Bin Laden
argued that muslims had a duty to wage a holy war against the U.S. citizens because the United States was responsible for maintaining the Saud royal family as rulers of Saudi Arabia and a state of Israel dominated by jews
Bin Laden
– operates like a buisness
– sets policies and oversees committees that specialize in such areas as finances, military, media, and religious policies
Al-Qaeda
is not a single unified organization
Al-Qaeda
several parts of asia have been accused of terrorism in the involvment of
– providing sancturary for terrorists wanted by other countries
– supplying terrorists with weapons, money, and intelligence
– planning attacks using terrorists
countires known to provide sanctuary for terrorists include
Afghanistan and Pakistan
had gained power in afghanistan in 1995 and had imposed strict Islamic fundamentalist law on the population
The taliban
how were taliban’s women treated?
badly, they couldnt drive, go to school or work outside the home
united states accused them of trying to develop nuclear weapons that could be launched against israel or its allies
Iran
united states led an attack against them in 2003 in order to depose saddam hussein, the country’s longtime president
Iraq
– a 1986 bombing of a nightclub in berlin
– planting of bombs on Pan Am flight 103
– planting of bombs on UTA flight 772
Libya terrorist attacks
have progressed further along the development continuum
developed country
has made somg progress towards development though less than developed countries
developing country
to measure the level of development of every country the UN created the
Human development index
Human development index has 3 factors
– a decent standard of living
– access to knowledge
– a long and healthy life
modifies the human development index to account for inequality
inequality adjusted human development index
is the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country
gross national income
is the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year but it does not account for money that leaves and enters the country
gross domestic product
is an adjustment made to the GNI to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
purchasing power parity
jobs fall into 3 categories
primary sector
secondary sector
teritary sector
includes agriculture
primary sector
includes manufacturing
secondary sector
includes services
tertiary sector
developign countries have a higher share of
primary and secondary sectors
is the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
productivity
in manufacturing is the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
value added
vital to the economy’s functioning and growth are goods and services related to communications such as telephones and computers
consumer goods
united nations combines two measures of quantity of schooling
– years of schooling
– expected years of schooling
2 measures of quality of education include
– pupil/teacher ratio
– literacy rate
is the percentage of a country’s people who can read and write
literacy rate
a baby born today in a developed region is on average expected to live ten years longer than one born in a developing region
life expectancy
people live longer and are healthier in developed countries than in developing ones because of
better access to health care
wealth generated in developed countries is use to
obtain health care
the gap between developed and developing countries is
health care
to measure the extent of each country’s gender inequality, the united nations has created the
Gender Inequality Index
empowerment dimension is measured by two indicators
– the percentage of seats held by women int he national legislature
– the percentage of women who have completed high school
is the percent of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
the labor force participation rate
healthcare dimension is also measured by two indicators
– maternal mortality ratio
– adolescent fertility rate
is the humber of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
maternal mortality ration
is the number of biths per 1,000 women age 15-19
adolescent fertility rate
– the self sufficiency development path erects barriers to trade
– the international trade path allocates scarce resources to a few activities
2 paths to development
– investment is spread equally as possible across all sectors
– the pace of development may be modest
– reducing poverty take precedence over encouraging a few people to become wealthy consumers
– fledging buisnesses are isolated from competition
– import of goods from othe rplaces is limited by barriers such as tariffs
development through self sufficiency
– traditional society
– preconditions for takeoff
– the takeoff
– drive to maturity
– age of mass consumption
five-stage model of development in 1960
south korea, singapore, taiwan, and the british colony of hong kong developed by producing a handful of manufactured goods, especially clothing and electronics that depended on low labor costs
The four dragons
– self sufficiency protected inefficient industries
– a large bureacracy was needed to administer the controls
2 major problems with self sufficiency
3 factors that have hindered countries outside the four asian dragons
– local hardships
– slow market growth
– low commodity prices
– reduced taxes and restrictions on imports and exports
– eliminated many monopolies
– encouraged improvement of the quality of products
international trade triumphs
world trade organization works to reduce barriers to trade in thress principle ways
– reduce or eliminate restrictions
– enforece agreements
– protect intellectual property
investment made by a foriegn company in the economy of another country is known as
foriegn direct investment
msot developing coutnries also recieve aid directly from government of developed countries
foriegn aid
before getting debt relife a developing country is required to
prepare a polciy framework paper
includes economie reforms or adjsutments
structural adjsutment program
requirments placed on a developing country typically include
– spend only what it can afford
– direct benefits to the poor not just the elite
– divert investment from miltary to health and education spending
– invest scarce resources where they would have the most impact
– encourage a more productive private sector
– reform the government including a more eddicient civil service
2 sets of standards distinguish fair trade
– fairtrade labelling organization international sets international standards for fair trade
– standards applied to workers on farms and in factories
fair trade requires emplyers to
– pay workers fair wages
– permit union organizing
– comply with minimum environemrntal and safety standards
1. end poverty and hunger
2. achieve universal primary
3. promote gender equality and empower women
4. reduce chidl mortality
5. improve maternal health
6. combat HIV/AIDS, malaria,a nd other diseases
7. ensure environmental sustainability
8. develop a global partnership for development
united nationas has set 8 gaols to make the world a better place

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