human geography test 4

Geography
is any activity that fufills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
service
provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them
consumer services
how many jobs in the united states are in consumer services?
1/2
retail, education, health, and lesiure
4 main types of consumer services
facilities other buisnessesand 1/4 of jobs are in this
buisness services
provide security and protection for citizens and buisnesses
public services
jobs expanded most rapidly in professional services such as engineering and advertising
buisness services
the most rapid increase has been in the provision of health care, including hospital staff, clinics, nursing homes, and hoem health care programs
consumer services
the share of employment in public services has declined during the past two decades
public services
provide consumer services having large thresholds, ranges, and market areas
Larger settlements
in which the country’s nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlements
rank-size rule
the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city rule
the country’s largest city is called the
primate city
indicates that the society is sufficietly wealthy to justify the provision of goods and services to consumers throught the country
a regular hierarchy
– compute the range
– compute the threshold
– draw the market area
profitability of a location
predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance peopel must travel to access it
gravity model
– define market area
– estimate range
– estimate threshold
– market share
steps for large supermarket
secodn tier of buisness services
command and control centers
third tier of buisness services
specialized producer-service centers
fourth tier of buisness services
dependent centers
offshore finacial services
-taxes
-privacy
bakc offices are made in
developign countries
reason why developign countries have back offices
– low wages
– ability to speak english
exports primarily to buisnesses and individuals outside the settlement
basic industries
are enterprises whsoe customers live in the same community
nonbasic industries
a community’s unique collection of basic industries defines its
economic base
are centers for agriculture and provide a small number of services
rura; settlements
are centers for consumer and buisness services
urban settlements
typical of the contemporary noth american rural landscape is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements
dispersed rural settlement
an agricultural based community in which a number of families live in clase proximity to each other with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
clustered rural settlement
feature buildings clustered along a raod or body of water to facilitate transportation and communications
linear rural settlements
consists of a central open space surrounded by structures
circular rural settlements
ealier settlements may have been established as service centers:
consumer services
buisness services
publci services
distinctive area of mostr cities is the central area or downtown
central buisness district
are centrally located tofacilitate rapid communication of fast breaking news
buisness services
– contain consumer services such as markets, bakeries, and butchers
– are less dominated by business service than U.S.
european central buisness ditricts
wealthy peopel cluster int hese areas
sector modle cities
– pre-european clonization
– european colonial period
– postcolonial independance
3 stages of city designs
city defines an urban settlement that has been legally inorporated in an independent self governing unit
city
the central city and the sourrounding built-up suburbs are called an
urbanized area
has created a method of measuring the funcitional area of a city
metropolitan statistical area
– an urbanized areas of at least 50,000 inhabitants
– the country within which the city is located
– adjacent countries with a high population density
metropolitan statistical area
desginated smaller urban areas
micropolitan statistical areas
CBSA
core based statistical area
CSA
combined statistical area
PCSA
primary census statistical area
process of legally adding land area to a city
annexation
is the process by which middleclass people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
gentrification
– inadequate job skills
– culture of poverty
– crime
– drugs
– homeless
– lack of services
– deteriorated housing
inner city problems
an urbane area consists of an inner city sourrounded by large suburban residential and buisness areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
peripheral model
originated as subarban residences for people who worked in the central city, and then shopping malls were built to be near the residents
edge cities
is a substance in the environment that is useful to people is economically and technological feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use
resource
is a residue of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago
fossil fuel
supplanted wood as the leading energy source in developed countries
coal
first plumped in 1859 but not an important
petroleum
originally burned off as a waste product of oil drilling but now used to heat homes
natural gas
is power supplied by animals or by people themselves

biofuel

animate power
energy si consumed because
– homes
– buisness
– transportation
the amoutn of energy remaining in deposits that have been discovered
proven reserve
the engergy in deposits that are undiscovered but thought to exist is a
potential reserve
is a concentration of trace substance as a greater level than occurs in average air
air pollution
air pollution may damage a regions vegetation and water suply through
acid deposition
dissolved in water the acids may fall as
acid precipitation

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