Human geograpy exam 2

Geography
Geopolitics
States power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
ratzels model
portrays the state as behaving like a biological organism, with its growth and change seen as “natural” and inevitable
exclusionary boundary
Exclusionary boundaries are designed to control people and resources outside the boundaries
inclusionary boundary
follow the concept of place-making and territoriality. Most boundaries are inclusionary
Territory
the delimited area over which a state exercises control and is recognized by other states
Frontier
an area at the edge or beyond a settled region
Nation
is a group of people sharing certain elements of culture, such as religion, language, history, or political identity
State
is an independent political unit with recognized boundaries, even if some of these boundaries are in dispute
nation-state
refers to an ideal form of consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state
Nationalism
is the feeling of belonging to a nation, as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
federal state
allocates power to units of local government within a country. U.S. is a federal state.
Unitary state
power is concentrated in the central government
Centripetal forces
strengthen and unify something
Centrifugal forces
divide or pull something apart
Imperialism
is the extension of state authority over the political and economic life of other territories
Colonialism
is a form of imperialism in that it involves the formal establishment and maintenance of rule by a sovereign power over a foreign population through the establishment of settlements
North/South Divide
through colonization of Africa, south America, parts of the pacific, asia, and smaller territories scattered through-out the southern hemisphere resulted in a political geographic division of the world into north and south.
Orientalism
is a discourse that positions the west as culturally superior to the east.
Decolonization
the reacquisition by colonized peoples of the control over their own territory.
Mackinder’s Heartland Theory
highlighted the importance of geography to world political and economic stability and conflict
East/West Divide
refers to the gulf between communist and non-communist countries, respectively.
supranational organization
is a collection of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature
United Nations
an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achievement of world peace.
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
trade agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the US creating a trilateral trade bloc in north America.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty.
EU: European Union
aims to create a common geographical space within Europe in which goods, services, people, and information flow freely and in which a single monetary currency prevails
Reapportionment
is the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
Redistricting
the defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries.
Gerrymandering
the practice of redistricting for partisan purposes, boundaries of districts are redrawn to advantage a particular political party or candidate or to prevent or ensure a loss of power of a particular subpopulation.
How much of world’s population is in cities
1/2
The Four fundamental aspects of the role of towns and cities
mobilizing; decision-making; generative; and transformative
Feudalism
a rigid rurally oriented form of economic and social organization
Merchant Capitalism
new phase of urbanization based on regional specializations and trading patterns
Gateway City
are those that serve as a link between one country or region and others because of their physical situation. Examples Rio De Janeiro and Buenos Aires.
Shock City
is seen at the time as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life. Examples Chicago and Manchester
Colonial City
are those that were deliberately established or developed as administrative or commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers
Primacy
when the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second and third largest cities in that system.
Primate City
cities like London and Buenos Aires
world city
have played key roles in organizing space beyond their own national boundaries
Over-urbanization
which occurs when cities grow more rapidly than they can sustain jobs and housing
Squatter settlements
are residential developments on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
Megacities
are very large cities characterized by both primacy and a high degree of centrality within their national economy
The Informal Sector
of an economy involves a wide variety of economic activities whose common feature is that they take place beyond official record and are not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration
Deindustrialization
involves a decline in industrial employment in core regions as firms scale back their activities in response to lower levels of profitability
Decentralization
when jobs and people from larger to smaller cities within the urban systems of core countries, and from metropolitan cores to suburban and ex-suburban fringes
Counter-urbanization
occurs when cities experience a net loss of population to smaller towns and rural areas
Re-urbanization
involving the growth of population in metropolitan central cores following a period of absolute or relative decline in population.
Gentrification
invasion of older, centrally-located, working class neighborhoods by higher-income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences

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