Human Impact On the Enviroment Midterm

Geography
Environment(definition form the text)
-sum total of surroundings
-Includes all biotic(living) and abiotic (non-living) components
-old french verbs: environer-“to encircle/surround” and virer- “to turn”
Environmental Geography
the interrelationships among humans and biophysical systems at variety of spatial and temporal scales
Renewable Natural Resources
natural resources that are replenishable over short periods
Stock Resources
Harvestable portion of resources
Nonrenewable Natural Resources
Finite supply and depleteable
Impact
Judgement based on what we know/value in the environment
I=PxAxT
-I=Imapct,P=Popl’,A=Affluence, T=Technology
-In 3rd world country: I=Pxaxt
-In 1st world: I=pxAxT
Carrying Capacity
Measure of ability of system to support life
Tragedy of commons
-each person who puts animals to graze on commons will be motivated by selfish interests to increase # of his/her animals (Hardin)
-each individual withdraws whatever benefits are available from the common property as quickly as possible, until resource becomes overused and depleted
ecological footprint
tool that can be used to express environmental impact of an individual/popl’
Characteristics of a resource
1.Dynamic
2.maybe depleted/degraded and/or made obsolete
3.Their life may be extended
4.can be hazards
continuous resource
likely available “forever”, some not affected by human activity (tidal,solar energy), some maybe (air,water)
Anthropomorphism
(human-centred)resource is function which that thing or substance takes part
Biocentric
Rights of non-human resources supersedes human
Technocentric viewpont
Humans can surmount environmental problems by means of technology(technological fix)
cultural carrying capacity
# of individuals humans will tolerate
Environment Canada’s mandate is to….
-preserve and enhance the quality of natural environment
-converse Canada’s renewable resources;
-forecast daily weather conditions and warnings and provide detailed meteorological info to all of Canada
-enforce rules relating to boundary waters
-coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal govn’t
Environmentalism
social movement dedicated to protecting natural world,-and by extension, humans-from undesirable changes brought by human choices
Impacts affecting Environmental Sustainability
Local changes to the:
1.Physical structure of the Biophysical Environment
2.Biodiversity
3.chemical composition
4.supply and/or change
Global Scale
Systems affected (climate change etc.)enhance the effects of local activities
Environmental Sustainability
-“development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs”
-often cast as opposite to human wants/needs; but we NEED our environmental resources
Progress Trap
in pursuing progress we inadvertently introduce problems that we don’t yet have the solutions to, and do not have the will to solve
Civilization
large complex human societies, based on the domestication of plants and animals
Domestication
the controlling of genetics of a plants/animal popl’ by the planned selection of plant seeds and animal parents
Societies (Type of Agricultural)
-shift in the location of cultivated fields
Attributes of Model’s components for Popl’
1.Size
2.Distribution
3.Density
4.Growth rate
Ecocentrism
-Judges actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of the whole ecological systems consisting of both biotic and abiotic elements.
-A holistic perspective
-Preserve the connections that tie the entities together into functional systems
Flow Resource
renewed or replaced relatively quickly, need sustainable yield
Attributes of the Model Components for Environment
1.Abiotic environment
2.Biotic environment
All resource attributes are affected by the popl’ attributes, and ultimately this combination impacts on the environment to a greater or lesser extent
Natural Resources
various substances and energy sources we need to surrive
Common Property Resources
Common property resources (environmental) are natural resources owned and managed collectively by a community or society rather than by individuals.
Environmental Canada
to preserve and enhance the quality of Canada’s natural environment, conserve our renewable resources, protect our water sources
Diamond’s 5 critical Factors that determine Survival of Civilizations
Climate Change, Hostile Neighbors, trade partners, environmental problems, society’s response to environmental problems
Environmental Science
pursuit of knowledge about the workings of the environment and our interactions with it
Biodiversity
cumulative # and diversity of living things
Sustainable Development
use of renewable and non-renewable sources, in manner that satisfies current needs without compromising future availability of resources
Triple Bottom Line
environmental, economic, social goals
Factors that Influence Popl’, Resources, and Environment
1.Per capita consumption
2.Public Polices
3.Technology
4.Culture
5.Externalities
Externalities
cost of producing or using an economic good or service which is not included in the market price of the good or service
System
Network of relationships among parts, elements or components that interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information
Open Systems
systems that receive inputs of both energy and matter and also produce outputs of both
Closed systems
Receive inputs and produce outputs of energy but not matter (no system is truly perfectly closed)
Feedback Loop
A system’s output can serve as input to same system
Negative feedback loop
output that results from a system moving in one direction, acts as input that moves the system in the other direction. The input and output neutralize eachother
Positive feedback loop
drives the system further toward one extreme or another
Dynamic equilibrium
when processes within a system move in opposing directions at equivalent rates, so their effects balance out.
Pastoral Nornadicism
human herders migrated and moved along with their herds during seasonal changes in grazing areas
Ecosystem
All living/non-living entities that occur and interact in a particular area at the same time. None have definite beginning or end- All interconnected
Nutrients
Elements and compounds that organisms consume and require for survival v
Nutrients
Elements and compounds that organisms consume and require for survival
Flux
mass/volume of material flowing per unit of time
Biome
A large biogeographical unit of land characterized by a particular combo of animals, vegetation and climate
Limiting Factors
physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that restrain population growth. We change what limiting factors are, in order to benefit ourselves
Reduction
The loss of an area or coverage of an ecosystem as a result of burning, agricultural development, urbanization, and lumbering
Fragmentation
when ecosystems are broken down from large continuous areas into smaller parts
Substitution
The replacement of one species or organism in an ecosystem with another
Simplification
Extreme form of substitution. Reduction of the biodiversity of an ecosystem
Extinction
The permanent loss of a species
Grasshopper Effect
long range cycle of transportaion of elements to other parts of the world. Ex. winds bring pesticids up to arctic and since there is low air circulation, there pesticides set in arctic polluting water-fish-predators, predators-humans

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *