Intro to Geography and Maps

Geography
Environmental Determinism
cultures are a direct result of where they exist
Possiblist
suggest that humans are not a product of their environment but possess the skills necessary to modify their environment to fit human needs. 
Equal-Area Projection
keep the size or amount of area intact but distort shapes
Conformal Maps
the distance between latitude lines increases the farther one moves away from the common line of latitude
Cylindrical Map
show true direction but loses distance. 
Planar Projection
any azimuthal map, which shows true direction and examines the Earth from one point-usually a pole or polar projections, is an example o fa planar class
Oval Projection
the combination of the cylindrical and conic projection. Molleweide projection is an oval projection
Flow-line maps 
are good for determining movement
Choropleth Maps
put data into a spatial format and are useful for determining demographic data, such as infant mortality rates
Cartograms
chart and assign data by size. 
Toponym 
indicate strength in a factor, place name on a map, false projections
Human Geography
is the study of human characteristics on the landscape
Physical geography
examines the physical features of the Earth and tries to define how they work. 
Fives Themes of Geography 
Place, Region, Location, Human-environment interaction, and Spatial interaction or movement
Place
is the description of what and how we see and experience a certain aspect of the Earth’s surface
Region
links places together using any parameter the geographer chooses
Formal Regions
regions where anything and everything inside has the same characteristic or phenomena. Includes religion, languages, or cultural trait
Functional Region;
Defined around a certain point or node.;
Distance Decay;
The sphere of influence that is reduced as the distance increases.;
Perceptual Region/Vernacular Region;
Exist primarily in an individual’s feelings. 
Relative Location 
giving location in referance to another feature on the Earth’s surface.;
Absolute Location;
using latitude and longitude;coordinates.;
Site;
internal, physical;characteristics;of a place
Mental map;
is a map that the person believes to exist.;
Latitudes or parallels
parallel lines that run east/west on the surface of the Earth
Equater
imaginary lines at 0 degrees;latitude.;
Longitudes or Meridians;
lines that run north and south.;
Prime Meridian;
runs through Greenwich, England. the O degree;longitude;line.;
Human-Environment Interaction
describes how people modify or alter the environment to fit individual or social needs.;
Spatial Interaction/movement
how linked a place is to the outside world.
Six Essential Elements in Geography;
The spatial world, Places and regions,;physical;systems, Human systems, Environment and Society, Uses of geography in today’s society 
Diffusion 
the movement of any characteristic. 
Hearth 
the place where the characteristic began 
Relocation Diffusion 
is the physical spread of cultures, ideas, and diseases through people. 
Migration Diffusion 
the physical spread of cultures, ideas, and disease through their movement from one place to another. 
Expansion Diffusion 
the spread of a characteristic from a central node or a hearth through various means. 
Expansion diffusion 
the spread of a characteristic from a central node or a hearth through various means. 
Hierarchical Diffusion 
the idea that a phenomenon spreads as result of a group, usually the social elite, spreading ideas or patterns in a society. 
Contagious Diffusion 
usually associated with the spread of disease
Stimulus Diffusion 
takes part of an idea and spreads that idea out to create an innovative product.
Distribution 
Everything on the Earth’s surface has a physical location and is organized in space in some fashion.;
Density;
how often an object occurs within a given area or space
Population Density;
how often people occur;within;a given area or space.
Physiological Density;
the number of people divided by the arable land.;
Arithmetic Density;
calculates the density using all the land in a given area.;
Concentration;
refers to the proximity of a particular phenomenon over the area in which it is spread.;
Clustered/Agglomerated
if;objects;are close together in the area of concentration;
Dispersed or Scattered
if the objects are spread out;
linear
if geometric shapes are used to describe how the phenomena are laid out in a straight line.;
Centralized
if geometric shapes are used to describe how the phenomena are clustered.
Random Distribution;
if geometric shapes are used to describe how the phenomena are laid out in a;lack of a pattern.
Demographic Transition Model;
describes human activities in the past and predicts human;activities;in the future.;

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