JB Stewart/Mike Foege Mexico Chapt. 7

Geography
Peninsular
A person who was born in Spain but who lived in Mexico after the Spanish took control.
Criollo
A person born in Mexico whose parents were born in Spain.
Mestizo
A person of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
Encomienda
A system that the rulers of Spain established in Mexico, under which Spanish men received a Native American village to oversee and gain tribute.
Father Miguel Hidalgo
A priest who gave a fiery speach to throw off Spanish rule.  The speach then became known as the Grito de Dolores.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
A treaty that the united States forced Mexico to sign in 1848, giving Mexico’s northern lands to the United States.
Gadsden Purchase
The 1853 purchase by the United States of a piece of land from northern Mexico.

Benito Ju;rez

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The first Mexican president from 1867 to 1872 who sought reform in Mexico.
Francisco Madera
Wealthy rancher who became of the first revolutionary leaders and president of Mexico in 1911.
Hacienda
In Spanish-speaking countries, a big farm or ranch.
Emiliano Zapata
Was a legendary fighter for farmer’s rights.
Ejido
In Mexico, a community farm owned by the people of a village together.
Institutional Revolutionary Party
The most powerful political party in Mexico from the 1920s to 2000, which won every presidential election during that time.
Vicente Fox
The first Mexican president in more than 70 years who did not belong to the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party).
Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Mexican president who in 1991 decided it was time to change the ejido system.
Privatization
The process of replacing community ownership with individual, or private ownership.
Distribution
The process of moving products to their markets.
Maquiladora
In Mexico, a factory that imports duty-free parts from the United States to make products that it then exports back across the border.
Nationalize
To establish government control of a service or industry.
P.E.M.E.X.
Petróleos Mexicanos, or “Mexican Petroleum,” a government agency that runs the oil industry in Mexico.
Diego Rivera
One of Mexico’s most celebrated 20th-century artists.
Frida Kahlo
Another favorite Mexican painter who was injured in a bus accident and painted self portraits from her bed.
Octavio Paz
Mexican who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1990.
Rural
Of the countryside.
Urban
Of the city.
Day of the Dead
A Mexican holiday, on November 1 and 2, for honoring loved ones who have died.
Fiesta
A holiday celebrated by a village or town, with events such as parades, games, and feasts.

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