Map Terms

Geography
political map
shows the borders of governments, such as countries, states, & cities
physical map
Shows information of Earth’s surface shape and features, such as elevation, mountain ranges, & terrain
special map
shows special information, such as populations species
navigation map
shows navigational information in a standard way, such as compass directions (N, S, E, W), roads & currents; must be the most accurate
map
have a key/legend that define the map symbols, distance, & scale; have color
rotational direction
the earth rotates west to east so that the sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west
time zone boundaries
a timezone starts every 15° (360° / 24 hours) of longitude from 0°
international date line
located at longitude 180°
geography
the study of everything on earth, from rocks & rainfall to people & places
perspective
the way a person looks at something
landscapes
is the scenery of a place, including physical, human, & cultural
cartography
the study of maps & map-making
meteorology
the study of weather
region
an area with one or more common features that makes it different, such as cities, states, etc.
functional region
made up of different places that are linked together
formal region
an area with one or more common features that makes it different from the surrounding area(s)
perception
the awareness & understanding of the environment around us
perceptional regions
regions that reflect human feelings & attitudes
grid
a pattern of lines that circle the globe (N, S, E, W)
longitude
the vertical lines on a map (east to west)
latitude
the lateral (horizontal) lines on a map (north to south)
equator
the line that divides the earth into northern & southern hemispheres
parallels
lines of latitude that are always parallel to the equator
meridians
lines of longitude
prime meridian
the meridian line of 0° longitude drawn from north to south poles that runs through Greenwich, England
degree
1/60th of a longitude or latitude
hemispheres
two equal halves of the earth, such as the northern and southern hemispheres divided by the equator
continents
large land masses on the earth’s surface
atlas
a collection of maps in one book
map projections
different ways to show a round earth on a flat map
great circle route
the shortest route between any two places on the planet
compass rose
arrows that point N, S, E & W on a map
legend
a key that showsthe symbols on a map & what they represent
contiguous
connecting or bordering
precipitation
condensed drops of water that fall as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
topography
describes surface shapes and features, such as elevation
climate graph
shows average temperature & precipitation in a place
population pyramid
shows the percentage of males & females by age group in a country’s population
who uses geography?
specially trained geographers, meteorologists, weather forecasts, local television, cartographers, teachers, etc.
how do we study geography?
have an idea of a region: people, places, languages, oceans, etc.
Essential elements
location, place, hunam-environment interaction, movement, region & ?
what are the two main braches of geography?
human & physical
how do we use geography?
the uses are to help us understand the relationship between people, places & environments over time; helps plan for future
what are some of the ways we can organize our world & the study of geography?
maps, cities, countries, states, roads & people
how do geographers & map makers organize our world?
northern, southern, eastern & western hemispheres
what kind of special maps do geographers use?
climate & precipitation maps, population & economic maps, elevation profiles & topographic
how do geographers use climate graphs & population pyramids?
to find out more about the people and the places they live in

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