Measures of Development

Geography
What is HDI?
the HDI is an index that measures a country’s average acheivment in 3 basic aspects of human development
What are the three aspects used to determine HDI?;
longevity knowledge and standard of living
how is the HDI used?

capture attention of policy makers and media

emphasize that people and their capabilities should b the ultimate critria for development

brings light to disparities in development (also within country)

HDI

Longetivity

measured in life expectancy at birth

HDI

Knowledge

measured by the combination of the adult literacy rate (male and female) and the combined primary, secondary school enrolment

HDI

Standard of living

measured by the GDP per capita
Some issues with HDI

offers only broad veiw not true measure of development of a country

;

does not consider gender inequalities within a country

GDI

Gender Related Development Index

-measures average acheivement of a population in the same dimensions as HDI while adjusting for gender inequalities

GEM

Gender Empowerment Measure

– captures gender inequalities in political participation, economic participation and power over economic resources

HPI

Human Poverty Index

-measures the level of poverty in the country and the opportunities people have to get out of poverty

what are some causes of underdevelopment?

(8)

Malnutrition

Natural Hazards

Trade

Poverty and Inequality

Lack of Resources

Corruption

War

Colonialism

Colonialism as a cause of underdevelopment

cycle of colonialism (come, control and take, leave)

indigenous people work for colonialist population for very low wages

when colonists leave indigenous people lose everything

War as a cause of under development

people are killed or injured most of wich are young working age males

funds directed towards wa effort that could be used better

infrastructure is destroyed

crops are not harvested and many sources of food and wter become unreliable

Corruption as a cause of underdevelopment

misuse of poer can cause a country to remain impovershed

gov steals money or mistreats people

Lack of Resources as a cause of underdevelopment

minimal natural resources affect development b/c puts country at disadvantage internationally as well as nationally;

lack of natural resources can cause strain on population

Poverty and inequality as a cause of Underdevelopment

not all LEDC’s can thrive on their own

 

Trade as a cause of underdevelopment

LEDC’s are taken advantage of by MEDC’s through unfain trade agreements

LEDC’s export cheaper good then they import

trading blocks restrict trade and prevent LEDC’s from growing

Natural Hazards as a cause of underdevelopment

eg)drought, volcano, hurricane, tsunami, earthquake

all can kill, destroy crops and settlement

Malnutrition as a cause of underdevelopment

over extended periods of time leads to problems with growth of body and brain

workforce less productive when weak

not only a result but a cause of poverty

What are the five stages of Rostow’s Model?

1. Traditional Society

2. Preconditions for takeoff

3. take off to maturity

4. Drive to maturity;

5. Age of Mass Consumption

R.M. 1. Traditional Society

country in a traditional subsistence economy

largely based on agriculture w/ little manufacturing

low levels of population growth

R.M. 2. Preconditions for take off

economy starts to make small shifts

begins to develop urban system

inequalitites develop b/w growing core ; underdeveloped periphery

pop increases

Take off to Maturity (R.M)

economy expands rapidly espessially manufactured goods

regional inequalities intensify

;

Ways of economic growth (3)

Natural-most MEDC’s

Forced-ex-socialist countries

Planned-now in newly industrialized countries

(R.M.) Drive to Maturity

economy becomes diversified

service industry becomes develope

growth spreads to other regions

pop. growth begins to slow and stabalize

(R.M.) The Age of Mass Consumption

advanced urban industrial systems

high production and consumption of consumer gods

pop.growth slows consideraby

 

Weaknesses of the Rostow’s Model

anglo centric-based on experience of N.A. and Europe

aspatial-doesnt look at vaiations within the country

dependancy theory
countries become more dependant on more powerful (often colonial) powers as a result of interaction and development

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