Mexican Geography

Geography
5 Colonial powers in M.A.
Spain
Britain
France
The Netherlands
Denmark
Spain’s colonial power
Mexico
Central America
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Puerto Rico
Britain’s colonial power
Carribean coast of C. America
Belize
Jamaica
Trinidad
Barbados
Grenada
Bahamas
France’s colonial power
Haiti
GuadeloupeMartinique
St. Martin
The Netherlands’ colonial power
St. Maarten, Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao
Denmark’s colonial power
Virgin Islands
Encomienda
Indigenous peoples paid tribute to Spanish conquistadors

Labor and products

Education of language and religion in return

Treaty of Tordesillas
Gave Portugal Land east

Spanish granted all land west (carribean)

Repartammiento
Indian labor mines and farms

Based on old tradition to supply labor for public works (roads, buildings, etc)

Audencias
Judicial districts put in Spain and colonies in 1500’s
Antonio de Mendoza
1st viceroy of Spain
1535
Early cities in M.A.
coastal cities

Havana
Santo Domingo
Veracruz
Acapulco

Spain’s Carribean Settlements
More military and bases

To protect mainland colonies

Colonial Economy
focused on producing gold and silver to bring back to Europe
Flotilla
Large ship that was sent back to Spain that held goods
Privateers
Private warships that were govt. authorized to attack tradeships of rival nations
Buccaneers
French privateers

Ship’s capt. and crew decided what to do

2 pirate towns
Port Royal, Jamaica- British outpost for British-contracted pirates

La Tortuga- French island

Agriculture in M.A. colonial times
Sugar- 1st crop

Ducth provided captial and technology (windmills)

African slave labor until 1570, then indian slave labor

Mining in M.A.
silver was >50% of value of all exports of new Spain

relied on forced indian labor (repartamiento system)

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
1469 Established the Catholic Monarchy
Royal partronage
1468
right for monarchy to appoint clergy and assign them where they wanted
Why didn’t indians have a problem being “converted”
Were used to the conqueror’s God as being the superior one
How did most indians convert?
mass baptisms of people

Did not understand teachings

Religious syncretism
Aztec and indian’s religions were drawn parallel to Christianity and eventually blended together
Similarities in myths of aztec/christianity
The great flood

Virgin birth of Christ/Quetzalcoatl

Cult of the Virgin Mary
1531 appearance to Juan Diego that sparked catholic beliefs in Mexico
Marianismo
Belief that feminine is superior

Women’s space is in the home

Machismo
Belief in male superiority

Tied to degradation of women and the feminie

Mans place is outside the home

Black Christ of Esquipulas
Black crucifix of Christ that tied together Mayan/christian beliefs

Guatemala

Edible clays

Liberation Theology
Sees Christ as both Redeemer and Liberator

Political activism to help the poor and oppressed

Protestant movement
Benito Juarez

Appeal to poor and oppressd

Independent of foreign control-local/national movements

Rasafarian movement
view haile selassie as the messiah

ganja is a sacrament

Treaty of Tordesillas
granted all of the Carrib to Spain
7 years war (French and Indian)
considered 1st world war

ended with Treaty of Paris 1763

France loss; British win

Peninsulares
spanish born but residing in the colonies
Criollos
Spanish descent but born in colonies
Mestizos
Euro and indian parents
Mulatos
Euro and negro parents
Indios
Pure indian descent
Miscegenation
process of mixed race peoples being in lowered social classes
Haitian Independence
slaves overthrow government

1804

Father Hidalgo
Criollo priest who worked with Indians

marched to Mexico City in 1810

executed in 1811

Mexican Independence
1815-1821-guerilla warfare

Vicente Guerrero in Oaxaca

1820 Augustine Iturbide-switches with Guerrero and defeat Spain

3 guarantees of Mexican Dependence
Mexico independent monarchy

Criollos and peninsulares have equal rights

Catholic church maintains monopoly

Emperor Augustus I
Augustine Iturbide

1822

Bankrupted Mexico (allowed peninsulares to take all goods with them)

Mexico’s 1st president
Guadalupe Victoria 1824
Antonio Lopez Santa Ana
1836 signs peace treaty that loses Texas

Exiled until 1838 war with France

Had funeral for leg

Mexican American War
1846 US declares war when Mexico wants Texas back

1848 treaty of guadalupe hidalgo- US gets land

Benito Jaurez
Indian that is 1861 president of Mexico

France invades when he declares debt on them

Porfirio Diaz
1910 president of Mexico when he rigs an election
Emiliano Zapata
Led the Liberation Army of the South of Mexico
Pancho Villa
Militant and Violent rebel leader who wanted redistribution of land to soldiers and peasants
Monroe Doctrine
kept Euros out of Latin America
Roosevelt Corollary
Allows U.s. to come into Latin America

Benefited L.A. economies

Franklin Roosevelt “good neighbor policy”
Renounces military action in L.A., but we start to control Govt. officials
Yellow journalism
U.S. media propraganda in newspapers slamming Mexico and gaining war support
U.S. and Nicaragua
Nicaragua wanted to build canal, U.S. prevented by supporting Civil War

Later supports contrarevolucionarios

Dominican Republic and U.S.
1930-1961 Trujillo Era
Haiti and U.S.
Papa Doc and the Tonton macoutes (death squads)
Guatemala and U.S.
1951 President Arbenz

2% population owned 72% of land

Cuba and u.s.
1959 castro comes into power, Communisim

1962 U.S. places embargo

Grenada and US
1974 independence

1979 team with Cuba communisim

Barbados and jamaica fight alongside US, defeat them in 2 days

OAS
mini UN

Latin American Countries

Promote Democracy and free trade

Foreign Aid
US is largest donor

only donates .1% of GDP

Sir Thomas Malthus
Studied population vs. food production (arithmatical growth)

Moral restraint, contraception, death would keep pop. in check

Esther Boserup
Dutch demographer

“as pop. increases, so will food production”

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
number of live births per 1000 people in a year
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
number of deaths per 1000 people in a year
Infant Mortality Rate
annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births
Total Fertility Rate
total number of live births per woman throughout her reproductive years
Rate of Natural Increase
(births – deaths)/population
Or
(CBR-CDR)/10
Doubling Time
:number of years it will take a population to double under current birth and death rates

Rule of 72

Demographic Transition Model
Warren Thompson

Showed how demographics and population progressed in 4 stages as civilzations developed

Push factors
push people away from current/previous location

(ex. natural disasters)

Pull Factors
Pull people to a new location

(ex. jobs)

Problems with Rapid Urban Growth
Pollution
Congestion
Overcrowding/Shantytowns
Lack of urban services
Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos
Also known as Delegado Cero
Spokesperson for EZLN
Only non-indigenous leader in movement
Globalization
A complex series of economic, social, technological, and political changes seen as increasing interdependence and interaction between people and companies in disparate locations.
Capitalist system
seeks to maximize profits
Minimize costs (cheaper labor, weaker environmental legislation)
Maximize revenues (larger consumer base)
Economic impacts of globalization
Cheaper products (Walmart)
Declining real wages
Loss of jobs abroad
Impacts of trade liberalization
Higher wages
Environmental Costs
Cultural impacts of globalization
Generic landscape
Loss of cultural heritage
Consumption/consumerism
Devaluation of the traditional
3 General types of Economic Integration
Common market
Customs union
Free trade area
Free Trade Areas
Two or more countries agree to remove tariffs and other barriers to trade

Examples:
NAFTA

Customs Union
Remove restrictions on trade between members
Establish common tariffs on all goods entering

Examples: Central American Common Mkt.

Common Markets
Free movement of goods, labor and capital between members

(Ex. European Union)

CACM: Central America Common Market
Collapses in 1969 (Soccer War)
Reinstated 1991
Unified external tariffs but limited success at promoting trade within
LAFTA: Latin AmericanFree Trade Association
Treaty of Montevideo 1960

South America + Mexico

Stymied by import substitution policies

CARIFTA: Caribbean Free Trade Association
Formed 1965 out of West Indies Federation

English-speaking countries of Caribbean

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
Early 1990s Mexico undergoing economic liberalization
Lift restrictions on imports
Privatization: banking, telephone

Eliminated most tariffs between members

The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
Supplement to NAFTA 1994 by Clinton

Response to environmentalist concerns about the effects of NAFTA on the environment

Obligates members to enforce their own environmental laws but does not set standards for members

The North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation
Supplement to NAFTA 1994 by Clinton

Resolution of labor problems

Promote cooperation between labor unions

Led to greater continuity of labor standards

Effects of NAFTA
Overall economic benefit to Mexico

Lower poverty rates

Increase in wages

Though benefits concentrated geographically in North Mexico

Maquiladora
workers performing the processing/assembly for someone else

foreign-owned, controlled or subcontracted manufacturing plants that process or assemble imported components for export.

1st Maquiladora
Tecate 1964: Electronica del Noroeste S.A.,
Maquiladoras and Mexico
4,000 maquiladoras

1.2 million employees.

49% of Mexico’s exports

Location of Maquiladoras
Originally along the US/Mexico Border
Led to rapid growth in Mexican border towns

Throughout 1990’s spread across Mexico
2000’s moved into Central America

Tijuana Maquiladoras
employs roughly 150,000 workers with over 700 maquiladoras

directly on the U.S. Mexico Border allowing for cheap shipment of assembled products directly into the U.S

Maquiladora Products
Electronic equipment
Electric appliances
Auto parts
Clothing
Furniture
Maquila Workers
The typical maquiladora worker is a woman between the age of 18 and 25
Single
With no children
Maquiladora work hazards
noise

chemical exposure

Maquiladora work stresses
$4-10 a day

given pregnancy tests and fired if pregnant

1492
columbus sailed

moorish occupation of Iberia done

Conquest
Feb 1519 Cortes lands on the Yucatan
Bartolome de las Casas
Suggested importation of slaves from Africa to replace indigenous work force but later recanted
Resort Tourism
Generally ‘all inclusive’ with limited impact on local economy

Pursued by Gov’t

Pacific Resort Areas: Mexican Riviera
Cabo San Lucas
Mazatlan
Puerto Vallarta
Acapulco
Puerto Escondido
Ecotourism
touring ecosystems of CA

Hard, soft ecotourism

Flags of Conveniece
Allows ship operator to avoid some taxes and regulations

Bahamas
Antigua
Panama
St. Vincent

Ports of Call
Cruise ship passengers disembark for a short period of time

Bahamas 1.8 million
V. Islands 1.2 million

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