Middle East and North Africa

Geography
alluvial soil
rich soil made up of sand and mud deposited by moving water. The Aswan High Dam on the Nile river reduces deposits of this.
wadi
streambeds that remain dry until heavy rains
kum
dune covered deserts in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
phosphate
a chemical used in fertilizer. Morroco produces.
oasis
a place in the desert where underground water surfaces
pastoralism
the raising and grazing of livestock – a way of life for bedouins in the steppe
cereal
food grains such as barley, oats and wheat that can be raised without irrigation in Georgia
4 climate regions in North Africa , central asia and southwest asia
desert, steppe, Mediterranean, and highlands
What physical features separate the Arabian Peninsula from the African continent?
Red Sea
What desert covers most of Turkmenistan? about half of Uzbekistan?
Garagum (Kara Kum). Quizilkum
About how much of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia experience desert climate?
50 percent
In what part of the region does tropical vegetation flourish? What climate factors allow this kind of vegetation to grow in that area?
Mediterranean zone – Syria, Morocco, Tunisia – cool rainy winters and warm dry summers.
What physical feature separates Europe and Asia and connect the Aegean And Black Seas
Bosporus Strait
ethnic diversity
differences among groups based on their languages, customs, and beliefs
infrastructure
basic urban necessities like streets and utlities
domesticate
to take plants and animals from the wild and make them useful to people. Farmers in north africa and asia were the first to do this.
culture hearths
centers where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread. One of the first was the Tigris and Euphrates region
cuneiform
writing sydtems of wedge shaped symbols used by the Sumerians
hieroglyphics
a form of picture writing used by the egyptians
quanat
underground canals built by the persians to carry water from the mountains across the desert to farmland
monotheism
a belief in 1 God
prophet
messengers
mosque
a house of worship for Muslims
nationalism
a belief in the right of an ethnic group to have its own country
nationalize
to place under government control
embargo
a ban on trade with a country
ziggurat
large mud-bricked temples shaped like pyramids built by the Sumerians
bedouin
desert nomads
bazaar
traditional marketplace
What groups of people live in this region?
Arabs, Israelis, Turks, Iranians and Afghans, Cauasian people, Kurds
How has urbanization affected ciies in N Africa, SW asia and Central Asia?
Many problems such as pollution, poverty, snarled traffic have arisen
What physical features allowed areas in Mesoptamia and the Nile Valley to become cultural hearths?
fertile soil, rivers for water
What basic idea is shared by Christianity, Judaism and Islam?
monotheism
In which areas of Israel do the Palestinians want an independent state of their own?
Weat Bank and Gaza Strip
aquifer
underground layers of porous rock, gravel, or sand that hold water
desalination
a process of removing salt from salteater
arable
land that is suitable for farming
commodity
economic goods
petrochemical
products derived from petroleum or natural gas
gross domestic product
the value of goods and services produced in a country in a year
haij
the yearly pilgammage to mecca in Islam
How had natural gas helped advance the region’s industrial growth?
countries that have ioil have experienced rapid growth while those that do not have not grown rapidly.
Whay do some regions int N Africa, SW Asia and Central Asia discourage tourism?
to limit the influenc of unwanted outside influencs.
What and where is the great man-made river project?
Libya – two pipelines used to carry freshwater from an underground aquifer under the Sahara to farms in the mediterranean
How did the Persian Gulf War affect the envirinment of the region?
Iraquis set fire to oil wells this cause air pollution and dumped oil into into the persian gulf.
What has cause the levels of the Dead Sea and the Aral sea to drop?
water is diverted from feeder rivers for irrigation

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