Middle East/N. Africa Info

Geography
What is the tell and where is it located?
Wetland in N. Africa
Where is the Nile Valley and what is it considered?
Egypt. A cultural hearth.
What is an exotic stream and what causes them?
River that flows perennially. Caused by the water and rain in the head waters of the river.
What is the levant and where is it located?
Wetland in E. Mediterranean.
What is Mesopotamia and where is it located?
The 1st cultural hearth. Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern day Iraq.
What are the Tigris and Euphrates rivers located and what are they considered?
They are located in Iraq and are considered foundations of Agriculture.
What is the fertile crescent?
Area where all cultural hearths began in the “middle east”
What are alluvial fans?
Soil that has been moved down the mountain by rain/snow that creates layers of soil and water. Provides fertile soil.
What are aquifers?
Porous rock layers holding fossil water under ground.
What are artesian springs/wells?
Aquifers under ground that are found in the Sahara desert.
What are semitic languages?
languages of a group
What is Zoroastrianism?
A relgion based around their god, Ahura Mazda. All good comes from him and evil comes from Ahriman.
Who is Arnold J. Toynbee?
British historian who created the Theory of Development
Where is the first cataract?
Aswan, Egypt of the Nile River.
What are stateless nations/people?
Groups that have no country of their own.
Who are the Kurds?
People who are of indoeuropean descent that are fighting a war with the Turks for their own country. Are also Sunni Muslims.
Who are the Palestinians?
Stateless people who are of arab descent that live in Israel.
Who are the Berbers?
Natives of the Mahgreb.
Who are the Tuaregs?
“Blue men” of the Sahara. Largest Berber tribe.
What is monotheism?
Belief in 1 God.
Omipotent means ___ _______.
all powerful.
Omniscent means ___ _______.
all knowing.
What is Islam / Muslim?
The last of the great religions. Islam = Religion. Muslim = follower of Islam.
Who is Muhammed?
Founder of Islam/Last prophet from God.
Where is Mecca and what is it’s significance?
Located in modern day Saudi Arabia and it is where Muhammed was born and began his teachings.
Where is Medina and what is it’s significance?
Located in modern day Saudi Arabia and it is where Muhammed went after he was driven out of Mecca.
What is the Hejira?
The flight from Mecca to Medina.
What is the difference between the 2 main sects of Islam?
1.) Sunnis – Any good muslim can be caliph.
2.) Shi’ite – Must be a blood relative of Muhammed.
What is a caliph?
The successor of Muhammed.
What is Ramadan?
Followers of Islam fast for a month during sunlight.
What is the Hajj?
The pilgrimage to Mecca.
What is an imam?
A leader of a local mosque.
What is a mullah?
Teachers of Islamic ways.
What is an ayatollah?
Shiasm leaders under Allah.
What is the Kaaba?
the holiest site of Islam. The Black Stone of the Kaaba. Located in Mecca.
What is Wahhabism?
Puritanical sect of Sunni in Saudi Arabia. They are fundamentalists that hate the U.S.
What is Madrassas?
Islamic schools where students are only taught about religion. Where many people from the Taliban come from.
What is religious fundamentalism?
Old fashioned, hate the West.
Sharia Law is based solely off the…
Koran.
What are the cultural hearths?
They are the areas of first cultural development. Mesopotamia, Nile Valley, Indus Valley.
What is the hydraulic civilization theory?
Irrigation caused a domino effect of development.
Where was Babylon located?
1st city created in Mesopotamia. Very wealthy.
What is the Ottoman Empire?
Created out of SE Europe, SW Asia and N Africa. Made of Turkish people Destroyed in 1917.
What is a choke point?
Major transportation artery on sea that is so narrow that ships have to slow down to get through it.
Where is the Strait of Hormuz?
Choke point on the Persian Gulf.
What is the Suez Canal?
Choke point located in Egypt.
What is the difference between the White and Blue Nile?
Blue Nile – originates in Ethiopia.
White Nile – originates in Lake Victoria.
Is Upper Egypt the Southern or Northern part?
SOUTHERN.
Is Lower Egypt the Southern or Northern part?
NORTHERN.
What is Cairo?
Capital of Egypt.
What is Alexandria?
2nd largest city in Egypt. #1 port city of Egypt. Named after Alexander the Great.
What is Port Said?
Northern entrance/exit to the Suez Canal.
What is the Sinai Peninsula?
Technically a part of Asia but still belongs to Egypt. Historically, wars always started here.
What is the Aswan high dam?
Located in Egypt, was once the biggest dam in the world. Paid for by the Russians.
Who are the Fellaheen?
peasants of Egypt.
Where is the Nubian desert?
Located in North Sudan. People who live there = Nubians.
What is the Kordofan province?
Where oil has been found in South Sudan.
What is Khartoum?
Capital city of North Sudan also where blue & white niles meet.
What is the Gezira Scheme?
Irrigated land between the white and blue niles and khartoum. Cotton.
What is Juba?
Capital of South Sudan.
What is Baghdad?
Capital of Sunni Iraq, created by arabs.
What is the Sunni Triangle?
Where followers of Saddam Hussein lived.
What is Basra?
Shi’ites main city. Port city. Oil field.
What is Mosul?
2nd greatest oil reserve in Iraq that is controlled by the Sunni’s.
What is Irbil?
The Kurd’s main city.
What is Kirkuk?
What the Kurds are fighting for. It’s their old main city. Oil reserve. Iraq.
What is Zionism?
The return to the Jewish homeland.
What is diaspora?
Scattering of jews/people.
What is the Balfour Declaration?
British promised Jews Israel if they helped them in WWI.
What is the Negev?
Desert in Southern Israel.
What is the Sea of Galilee?
Source of water – piped to the Negev desert.
What is Haifa?
Port city in Israel. North of Tel-Aviv.
What is Jerusalem?
Holy city for jews, muslims and christians. Unofficial capital of Israel.
What is Tel-Aviv?
Temporary capital on coast.
What is the West Bank?
Area of Israel that belongs to the Palestinians and Jordan.
What is the Gaza Strip?
Area of Israel where 1.6 million Palestinian refugees live.
What is the Gulf of Agaba?
Where Israel and Jordan have access to the Red Sea.
What is the Anatolian Plateau?
Located in middle Turkey. Bs Steppe climate. Wheat is cultivated here.
What are the Pontic Mountains?
A mountain range that is located in Northern Turkey.
What are the Taurus Mountains?
A mountain range that is located at the Southern Coast of Turkey.
Who is Mustafa Kemal?
Leader of the Rebellion in Turkey.
Where is Ankara?
City on the Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. New capital city.
What are Istanbul and Constantinople?
Constantinople – The original name for the Turkish capital. Roman city. Conquered and changed to Istanbul.
What the Ceyhan?
A port city in Turkey. Important oil pipeline here so that the Russians can be avoided.
What is Adana?
NATO airbase used during Iraqi war. Turkey.
What is Thrace?
Area of Turkey that is in Europe and has the ability to join the EU.
What is Diyarbakir?
City in E. Turkey that is the capital of “kurdistan”
What are the Turkish straits?
Choke point in Turkey. Connects the Black Sea to the Agean and Mediterranean.
What are the Zagros Mountains?
Mountain that is in Iran and borders Iraq.
What are the Elburz Mountains?
Mountain in Iran that is on the Caspian lake sea coast.
What are ganats?
Channels in irrigation system on alluvial fans.
What is Tehran?
The capital of Iran.
What is Khuzestan?
Main oil producing region of Arab Iran.
What is Abadan?
The main city in Khuzestan. World’s largest petroleum refinery.
What is Khark Island?
Oil terminal that ships pull up to in Iran
What is Persian/Farsi?
Persian = main people of Iran.
Farsi = their language.
Who is the Shah?
King of Iran that was an allie of the west.
What is theocracy?
Gov’t ruled by relgion.
Where is cyrenaica?
A wet land in Libya.
What is Benghazi?
located in libya – US ambassador killed here.
What is tripolitania?
Area near coast in Libya, wetland.
What is Tripoli?
Capital of Libya.
What is Aozou Strip?
Libya stole from Chad – uranium mines.
What is the Maghreb?
The West – Morrocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
Where are the Atlas Mountains?
Mountains on coast of Algeria.
What is Ceuta?
Where spanish stayed in Morrocco.
What is Casablanca?
A big city in Morrocco.
What is the W. Sahara?
An area invaded by many contries, Morrocan people captured it.
What is Melilla?
Spanish controlled Morroccan city.
What are ergs?
Sand dune regions.
What are Hamadas?
Packed clay, gravel and rocks.
What is Algiers?
Captial of Algeria.
What is Oran?
Naval port in Algeria.
What is the Kabylia Region?
Key area of rebellion in Algeria.
What is LNG?
Liquid natural gas.
What is Tunis?
Capital of Tunisia.
What is Bizerte?
Naval base at Tunisia.
What is wadis?
Ephemeral streams – short lived.
What is the Gulf of Sidra?
Libyan oil field.

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