modern urbanization

Geography
What happened to European cities during World War II, and how did this affect the course of development immediately after the war?
Cities were attacked, destroyed, bomb, reduced to rubble, Europe is very different after WWII, as compared to after WWI, with devastated city centers and housing destroyed in enormous quantities
In what two ways were devastated city centers reconstructed following the war?
In what ways did post-World War II development diverge in socialist Europe from typical patterns in the West (e.g., in terms of city center development, provision of housing, the overall hierarchical structure of the urban system)?
Took the destruction as opportunity for Urban renewal, rebuilt with modern buildings, Stockholm- even though within Sweden which was neutral, area was decided for renewal with skyscrapers, etc; West Berlin was turned into glitzy city center with the modernist style, used Rubble Ladies: since men were sent away, left women to clear up rubble, Munich was tried to  be restored as much as possible, but Warsaw was redone almost perfectly from how it used to be (made completely historic); East: different kind of renewal, under communism the land market and so did not get concentrated city center, rather neglect city center and more dispersed kind of style, a lot of east cities received sky scrapers – stalin really liked them, in east you can have sky scrapers surrounded by open spaced which would never fly in west; HOUSING: West: build houses as quickly as possible, large structures that could house large number of people for cheap, many western cities were surrounded by these large housing complexes, have somewhat of a baby boom and necessity for place to live after war, Londons green belt: edge of cities moving out, by puttinig green belts around cities so would be continuous developing sprawl, London’s original 5 mi out, no 15-20 mi out, Paris developed wedges-linear style and created zones within that, East: tremendous emphasis on industrialization, housing was taken from restored/old housing and subdividing that, squashing multiple families in small apts, eventually things got so bad, created a crash program, creating mass housing like what occurred in west 20 years ago, house as many people as possible, surge housing in East: housing towers from curtain wall around city, shows scale of necessity to house, URBAN Heirachy: West: develop elaborate urban hierarchy, great cities, second great cities etc.; whole system is fully developed which did not happen in west, known as “Blue Banana”; East: different, greatest city→ Moscow, no seconday or after that, not a full robust hierarchy, just domination of certain cities, due to emphasis on industrialization
London Blitz
fire storms (e.g., Dresden, Hamburg):
famous for fire bombings
historic preservation (as in Munich or Warsaw):
restored some in Munich, almost perfect resoration in Warsaw
urban renewal (as in Rotterdam or Stockholm):
Berlin as showcase of capitalist west and socialist east:
Warsaw’s and Bucharest’s socialist era Palaces of Culture,
green belts and new towns
edge of cities moving out, by putting green belts around cities so there wouldn’t be continuous developing sprawl
heavy industry and urban
development in the East

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