modern urbanization

Geography
How have cities changed most recently: what are some of the key developments that make them different from cities in the post-war era?
Transformations of the city center→ Tower of London, London Development agency, Docklands Greenwich, Canary Wharf Development; Historic Redevelopments→ Les Halles (Stomach of Paris, Forum, retained some of the iron and glass to tie in past but create a modern venue); new divisions of space→ historic buildings in Amsterdam gutted, now lofts where young wealthy people live, Gentrification, city center now for people with money; new modes of urban culture and consumption→ trendy waterfront developments, hypermarkets/discount outlets, fast-food, cut-rate motel chains, regional shopping centers, garnishly promoted theme parks, consumer electronics revolution,  no infrastructural development (cant attract good investment without also supplying infrastructure→ trolley systems, metro system, smart cars); development of research parks; State of the air airports, millennium projects; new surburban housing; East is rapidly catching up with the west
Industrialization
transformation cities experienced in their employment structure → deindustrialization, availability of low-cost production units abroad, ever-smaller proportions of urban labor force employed in traditional manufacturing jobs; employment in retail, banking, and corporate service occupations has surged, emphasis on command and control kind of managerial employment associated with large transnational firms
Globalization
:: root of changes → vast restructuring process that has profoundly affected urban places and systems throughout the world; term refers to great acceleration in world trade that since the 1970s has come to link inextricably activities and events occurring in regions and places around the world, incorporates a number of trends: liberalization of global financial, commodity, and labor markets through the decline of the regulatory powers of the nation-state, the emergence of great supranational or continental trading blocs, growth in number and influence of transnational corporations, rise of informational technologies capable of providing the necessary infrastructure for a truly global economy; Means that the new global economy is built around the coordination of production inputs that are drawn from an international web of suppliers
Changing skylines:
London, lifted the law on height regulation to compete with site, now have skyline with high buildings, etc., countries are racing to have the tallest business towers, driven by globalization and restructuring of economy and competition to attract
Gentrification
tenements were redone for new real estate, city now popular for people with money
Waterfront development (e.g., Docklands-Canary Wharf development in London): 
corporation was formed to promote office space on site, London lifted law of height regulation to compete with the site
Potsdamer Platz in Berlin:
eliminated as an address after WWII because it was in the way of Berlin Wall, after the reunification of Germany, it has come back and it now Europe’s largest building site, only remnants of Berlin Wall left, controversy: history being destroyed with changing of landscape
Research parks
located near universities, brings high companies and workers in the country to enhance the city: France – Montepellier, Nice: Sophia Antipolis
Urban prestige projects (exhibitions, monuments, airports, etc.):
Demand for state of the art airports, Millennium projects→ London eye, London Millennium Dome: centerpiece for regeneration, Moscow: Statue of Columbus, was supposed to be a gift to the US, now located in the Moscow River, known as Peter the Great
New suburban development in the East :
newly wealthy citizens of the country, now developing around eastern cities east is very rapidly catching up with the west, lagging in 20th century, gap is now closing

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