module 5& 6


explains the process of cultural and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures.


  1. cultural change: a change in the cultural behavior and thinking of a person or group of people through contact with another culture

when a person keeps their original home culture but also adapts and accepts the new culture. In effect, this person is bi-cultural. While maintaining original customs, history and values they also add custom’s of their new culture environment


when a person replaces their original home culture with their new culture. It was this form that many early immigrants experienced when they migrated to the United States.


Losing everything that makes a person from a culture to completely conform to a new more promient culture to the point of not being able to speak native languages of nationality.

Cultural ecology

the study of human adaptations to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment.[

Cultural integration

means the process of one culture gaining ideas, technologies and products of another and so this means that this culture will seem to be integrating into the other.

Cultural landscape

represent[ing] the combined work of nature and of man




human imprints includes: how people have changed and shaped the environment to the bulidings, signs, fences and statues people erect. reflect the values, norms, and aesthetics of a culture.


  1. regional variety of language: a regional variety of a language, with differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation


  1. language spoken by class or profession: a form of a language spoken by members of a social class or profession


genetic skin color, facial features, appearance that can not be changed.

Ideological subsystem

the ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and means of their communication that characterize a culture.

Sociological subsystem

the sum of the expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations that find their outlet in economic, political, military, religious, kinship: and other associations. These sociofacts define the social organization of a culture. They regulate how the individual functions relative to the group, whether it be family, church, or state. There are no “givens” as far as the patterns of interaction in any of these associations are concerned, except that most cultures possess a variety of formal and informal ways of structuring behavior. Differing patterns of behavior are learned and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Universalizing religion

a religion that attempts to operate on a global scale and to appeal to all people wherever they reside, compared to an ethnic religion which primarily attracts one group of people living in one place. Most are divided into branches, denominations, and sects. By far the most practiced  is Christianity. Islam and Buddhism


About 62% of the world’s population identify, with about 24% adhering to an ethnic religion and 14% to no religion in particular.

Spatial diffusion

The forcing factors may consist of separation elements between two locations, such as the observed time of from one place to another, or behaviour coherence




circulation;from a person from one area traveling to another and spreading the other places ideas.


is a classification system used to categorize humans into large and distinct populations or groups by heritable phenotypic characteristics, geographic ancestry, physical appearance, and ethnicity. In the early twentieth century the term was often used, in its taxonomic sense, to denote genetically diverse human populations whose members possessed similar phenotypes.[1]
ethnic religion

may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question


Judaism is considered an;by some authors (defining of the Jewish people, but not by others. Hinduism as a whole is mostly classed as one of the world religions, but some currents of Hindu nationalism take it as definitive of an Indian or Hindu ethnicity or nation. Within Hinduism, there are regional or tribal currents with ethnic traits, sometimes termed Folk Hinduism.

;Material Culture
;is a term that refers to the relationship between artifacts and social relations

Tribal religion

is officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy


refers to the fact that all such religions began as the practice of small groups, extended families, clans or tribes, and were originally confined to the ancestral lands of these groups. The religion becomes an identifying feature of members of the group, so that even when exogamy is practised, they remain bound together by symbols and practices as well as by blood relationships.



  1. shared beliefs and values of group:;the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people

Cultural Realm
The entire region throughout which a culture prevails


Culture trait

are the characteristics of a culture. An example would be like…Muslims…they pray 5 times a day because it’s a cultural tradition.
Culture Traits are Characteristics of a Culture
Example: Christians pray for religion. Praying is a Characteristic of a religion.

Read more:’culture_traits’#ixzz1wCZjzC8A

Artificial boundary

the Great Wall lines of longitude and latitude arbitrary lines. People move around and don’t really know where they are. State lines no perfect boundaries lots of disputes. Super imposed boundaries that do not take culture into account like in Africa make for conflict.

 Centrifugal force

(breaking up)

tearing a country apart through Charistmatic leaders like Hitler that brainwashed his people to slaughter and destroy Germany




Centripetal Forces

bringing together

Gahndi in India brought peace to his people


The Country becomes united and has common enemies on the outside. Strong sense of togetherness on the inside

 Compact state

is circular with the capitol in the center.

 Elongated state

protruded or panhandle country such as Myanmar (Burma) or Thailand have an extended arm of territory. Like an elongated state, the panhandle complicates things
Ethnic Cleansing
Fragmented State
A state with many broken up islands isolated from eachother.


Extending beyond or transcending established borders or spheres of influence held by separate nations

The United States has a great sphere of influence economically in other countries. North Korea has a military sphere of influence but its not global like the US.

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