Mr. Beachly Final Vocabulary

Geography

 

 

Austalia

  • a continent in the Southern hemisphere
  • the world’s smallest continent
  • a country including Tasmania;

;

;

Asia

  • world’s largest continent
  • main part of the Eurasian landmass
  • surrounded by Arctic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Europe

 

 

Africa

  • second largest continent
  • surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and the Red Sea

 

 

North America

  • 3rd largest continent
  • includes Canada, USA, Mexico, Central America and many islands

 

 

Europe

  • 2nd smallest continent
  • a peninsule of the Eurasian landmass bounded by the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and Asia

 

 

South America

  • 4th largest continent
  • bounded by the Carribean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean
  • is linked to North America by the isthmus of Panama

 

 

Antarctica

  • 5th largest continent
  • this continent contains the South Pole
  • is almost completely covered by an ice sheet

 

 

Alps Mountains

  • major south, central European mountain system
  • world’s 4th largest in size

;

;

Himalayas Mts.

  • world’s largest mountain range
  • in south, central Asia extending along the border between India and Tibet through Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan

 

 

Andes Mountains

  • mountain system extending along the western coast of South America
  • 2nd largest mountain range

 

 

Rocky Mountains

  • 3rd largest mountain range
  • in western North America extending from New Mexico to northeastern British Columbia, Canada

 

 

Atlantic Ocean

  • body of water which separates North and South America from Europe and Africa
  • extends from the Arctic to the Antarctic

 

 

Arctic Ocean

  • 4th largest ocean
  • located north of Asia, Europe and North America

 

 

Pacific Ocean

  • world’s largest ocean
  • bounded by North and South America to the east, and Asia and Oceania on the west

;

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Indian Ocean

  • 3rd largest ocean
  • lies between Africa, Asia and Australia

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parallel

;

another name for a line of latitude

;

;

longitude

;

imaginary lines on a map or globe that meet at the North Pole and the South Pole

;

;

latitude

  • imaginary lines on a map or globe that run from east to west
  • they lay flat
  • they never meet

;

;

meridian

;

another word for a line of longitude

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cardinal directions

;

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North, South, East and West

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geography

;

;

the study of the earth and all things on it

;

;

hemisphere

;

  • one half of the earth
  • there are 4 of them: northern, southern eastern and western

;

;

;

;

absolute location

;

;

a location marked exactly, by an address or geographic location

;

;

relative location

a location marked by using one thing in relationship to another, using words such as next to, near or between

;

;

scale

;

a tool used to judge the relative size or distance of something on a map

;

;

key

;

;

a tool used on a map that explains the meaning of symbols and colors

;

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distortion

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when accuracy is lost

;

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projection

;

;

a flat, usually paper version of a globe

;

;

compass rose

a diagram that shows the cardinal and intermediate directions on a map

;

;

Prime Meridian

  • the main line of longitude that runs through Greenwich, England
  • used to measure distance east and west in degrees

;

;

Equator

  • them ain line of latitude that divides the Northern from the Southern hemisphere
  • used to measure distance north and south in degrees

;

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intermediate directions

;

northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest

;

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orbit

;

the path that a body makes as it circles around another body

;

;

revolution

;

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a circular journey made along an orbit

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axis

  • an imaginary line around which a planet spins
  • runs through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole

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vegetation

;

;

plants that grow in a region

;

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tundra

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an area of cold climate and low lying vegetation

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canopy

;

the dense mass of leaves and branches which form the top layer of a forest

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savanna

  • a tropical grassland
  • flat, grassy region or open plain with scattered trees and thorny bushes

;

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desert scrub

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desert vegetation that needs little water

;

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deciduous trees

;

a tree that loses its leaves in the fall

;

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coniferous trees

;

a tree that produces cones to carry its seeds

;

;

Rocky Mountains

;

  • largest mountain chain in the USA
  • extends 3,000 miles from Canada, through the US, and into Mexico

;

;

Appalachian Mountains

  • 2nd largest mountain chain in the USA
  • extends 1,500 miles from Canada into the United States

;

;

Great Plains

the lowland prairie that lies east of the Rockies and west of the Mississippi River

;

;

Central Plains

;

the lowland prairie that lies west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River

;

;

Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plains

flat, lowland that borders the east coast of the US and the Gulf of Mexico, and extends along the Mississippi River

;

;

Great Lakes

  • world’s largest group of freshwater lakes
  • Huron, Ontaria, Michigan, Erie and Superior
  • HOMES

 

 

Mississippi River

  • largest river in the US
  • 2nd longest river in US
  • drains 40% of the US rainwater into the Gulf of Mexico

 

 

 

Missouri and Ohio Rivers

 

two major rivers inthe US which are tributaries of the Mississippi River

 

 

 

agriculture

 

farming, including growing crops and raising livestock

 

 

industry 

 

 

 the organized action of making goods and services in order to sell them to the public

 

 

industrialization

  • change from an agriculture-based economy to an industry-based economy
  • the development of manufacturing

 

 

responsible development

balancing the needs of the community, the environment and the economy

 

 

deforestation

 

 

the loss of forests due to the overcutting of trees

 

 

Amazon Rain Forest

 

a tropical rain forest inthe drainage basin of the Amazon River in northern South America

 

 

Rio de Janiero

 

 

a major city in Brazil

 

 

Brasilia

 

 

the capital city of Brazil

 

 

altiplano

 

 

a high plateau in the Andes Mountains

 

 

sierra

 

 

a range of mountains, such as the ones that run from northwest to southeast in Peru

 

 

oasis

 

 

a fertile area in a desert that has a source of water

 

 

Ferdinand Magellan

  • a Portugese explorer sailing from Spain
  • he was the first person to circumnavigate the globe

 

 

circumnavigate

 

to sail or fly all the way around the something, such as Earth

 

 

glacier

 

 

a large slow-moving mass of ice or snow

 

 

Augusto Pinochet Ugarte

 

military dictator of Chile from 1937 to 1988

 

 

Caracas

 

 

the capital city of Venezuela

 

 

boom

 

 

a period of growth or prosperity

 

 

privatization

 

a government’s sale of land or industries it owns to individuals or companies

;

;

coup

;

  • short of coup d’etat
  • French word meaning the overthrow of a ruler or government by an organized group that takes power

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