Oceania

Geography
Oceania comprises…
Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands
Pacific Way
Attitude or point of view of the people of Oceania–unifying factor
Three large island groupings
Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia
Covers….how much of Earth
1/4 of planet
Gondwana
Australia once apart of this giant land mass during time of Pangea
Great Barrier Reef
Off the NE coast of Australia…longest coral reef in the world
High Islands
volcanoes that rise above the sea into mountainous rocky formations
Atoll
low lying island …small range of enviornments and very limited supply of fresh water
Climate

Besides australia most is humid and warm nearly all the time

 

Most islands in tropical and subtropical zone

Mild Temperatures

 

"Land of the long white cloud"
Big white clouds above the islands of new zealand brought in by the roaring forties (40th parallel south) —powerful air and ocean currents that speed around far southern hemisphere
Great Dividing range
In australia, blocks the movement of moist easternly wind *blowing east to west* so rain does not reach interior
Australias river systems
1 river system–Darling and Murray rivers
Plant life in Australia

Highly diversified and unique–due to isolation

Marsupials: mammals that give birth to their young at very immature age and put them in their pouch

 

Monotremes: egg-laying mammals 

 

Mainly grassland, scrubland, and bits of open woodland

Melanesians
dark skin tones, New Guinea, and the area known as Melanesia (New Guineas, islands south of the equator and west of Tonga; Solomon islands, new caledonia, fiji, and vanuatu)
Diversity of animals and plants throughout islands
Richest in western pacific, near larger landmasses, thinner in east
Austronesians
From SE Asia to pacific
Micronesia
small islands east of the Philippines and north of the equator
Polynesia
numerous islands situated inside a large irregular triangl formed by new zealand, hawaii and easter island…
Name an island formed by tectonic activity…
New Guinea
Makatea
uplifed coral platforms

Australias climate

 

 

Arid in australia’s interior, low islands

Moist everywhere else, high islands

2/3 australia is arid

Three cultural regions
Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia

Social structure on islands

;

;

On resource-rich islands, relatively simple social organization

On resource-poor islands, social hierarchies

Population and Pop. growth
;Just 34 million people
;2/3 live in Australia
;Australia and NZ: older, slower growing populations
;Other countries: younger, faster growing
;High rates of urbanization throughout
;Often poorer standard of living than rural

Fiji
struggling over ethnicity, land ownership
Shift from export to service economy
;Shift from Export to Service Economies
;Still very little manufacturing; undercut by Asia
;Pacific islands tend more towards extraction
;Tourism
;Growing rapidly, creates problems for ecology
;In Hawaii, growth is in Asian tourists
;Attempt to promote sustainable tourism

Shift in Economic Orientation
;New Asian Orientations
;Most apparent in economics
nAsia buys 71% of Australian exports
nLoss of European protection for markets is painful
nGutting of labor unions
nStress less visible in Pacific islands; tradition of self-sufficiency
;Geopolitical concern over China

Enviornmental factors
;Pacific Islands
;Mining: Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; Nauru
nIndigenous forced off land, which is left ruined
;Nuclear pollution
nU.S. and French testing on possessions
;UNCLOS
nProvides 200 mile buffer around islands for resource exploitation
;Global Warming: fear of rising sea levels

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *