People and Cultures of the world

Geography
Climate
Desert- hot summer, warm winters, very little rainfall, low humidity
-Semiarid/steppe: warm/hot summers, cold/cool winters, some summer rain some winter snow
Mediterranean: warm/hot summers; mild/cool winters, dry summers; wet winters, low humidity
Oil
dominates the regional economy
petro states: states with economies fueled by petroleum revenue
Key moments in oil hisotry
before 1970
Oil prices remained relatively stable at around $3 a barrel
-oil fields controlled by foreign companies
-OPEC (organization of petroleum exporting countires) formed in 1960).
OPEC
organization of petroleum exporting countries
algeria, iran, iraq
kuwait, libya, qatar
saudia arabia, UAE
Key moments in oil history
1973-1980
Rising prices. OPEC organized drastic price increases.
US support of Israel= OPEc countires to cut production and raise prices further.
Political instability in region prompted even higher oil prices.
Boom time for OPEC countires
key moments in oil history
1973
energy crisis
high OPEC prices prompted oil development in other places
more fule efficent vehicles
more coal power pants
economic recession (high oil prices)+ decreased demand for oil
key moment in oild history 1980-1990s
1980-1986- oil glut=low oil prices
1990-1991: gulf war. Iraqi takeover of Kuwait
Carter Doctrine
1980 US will use any mean necessary, including military force to keep oil flowing
Guf WAr 1991
oils real cost
100 barrel oil
150 barrel protect oil resouces
250 barrel real cost
US spends 100 billion a year in the region
where does middle east oil go
western europe, japan, china, but also US
The geography of pipelines
Why pipelines?
bypass chokepoints such as the strait of hormuz
minimize time and expense of seaborne transportation
language
Most people speak aRabic and most of the people are Islamic
five pillars of ISlam
profession of faith
prayer five times
almsgiving
fasting during month of ramadan
pilgrimage to Mecca (HAJJ)
shite
(shia) religous authority- muhammads family (23 %)
Sunni: religiouse clergy (mainstream islam 73%)
Israel palestine conflict
whose homeland
Jews believe that Israel is their homeland Palestinians have lived there for generations
IP conflict
Ottam empire until WWI
-british created the state of Palestine as an independent state for ARab speaking Palestinians and as a homeland for the gathering Jewish people.
Zionist movement
gathering of Jews to Israel increaed pace 1930s to 1940s
Palestininns were worried about the future of the state.
British left it to the UN
IPC
1847 Un plan of two state solution= failure
Israel said no
arab nations helped palestininas
Arab-Israeli won=Jewish
Palestininans occupied what is now called WEst Bank
IP conflict
1967-Israel gained part of Jerusalem
they want Gaza strip
create settlements is west bank
palestinian attacks against Israeli settlement
I builds a wall to keep out palestinians
Arab spring
A revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests spreading thoughout the arab World
pro democratic
reasons for arab spring
global econokic recession
high unemployment
human rights violations
lack of democracy
corruption
police brutality
ethnic.religious differences
globalization (social media)
relative location
where do they live
crowded aroudn the Nile River- 95% of population lives within 12 milles of the river
consequences: dwindling agriculture production, imported food, and high inflation
Egypt population
growing quickly faster than the economy
a large group of under 30s who are educated but cannot find employment
fertility rate
the average number of children
60: 7.2
1990 4
2010 3
urbanization
medina: urbam pattern typical of islamic cities before the 20th centrury

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