people and cultures

Geography
Russia
Use to be the USSR in 1991 split into 15 different countires.
Size
Russian realm is big, 8.5 million square miles, 11 time zones,
sparcely populated 280 million
population breakdown
Russia 142 million
Ukraine 47 million
Uzbekistan 27 million
average population density of 32 people per square miles
climate
harsh, contintental. long cold winters, short warm summers, little precipitation
taiga: largest contingous forest
Tsarist Russsia
(1500s-1800s)
-detatched ruling class
-serfdom of peseants
-explotation of workers in industrial revolution
Soviet Revolution
1905-1917 led by lenin
USSR
formed in 1925.
creation of ASSRs (autonomous soviet socialist republicts)
Russification
A rissoam attempt to implant russian culture into non russian regions.
the soviet union
(1924-1991)
-Centrally planned economics
-production of particular manafactured goods in particular places
-economic interdependence=national unity-labor compensation not based on productivity
-money not the problem, just nothing to buy
-centralized, no flexibility
soviet leaders
Lenin (18-27)
Stalin (27-53)
Kruschev (53-64)
Brezhnev (64-82)
Gorbachev (85-91)
Perestroika: tried to restructure economy to keep up with the west
Glastnost: encouraged opennes in internatikonal affairs
Soviet Union Economic and Political collapse
Growth was around 10% in the 1950s, 7% in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 2% in the 1980s
-capital was sank in unproductive activites (military)
-the country went bankrupt
Post-Soviet Russia
Soviet union collapsed in 1991 (Second Russian Revolution)
-Gorbachev- Boris Yeltsin
economic shock therapy: rapid replacement of communism with free market capitalism
-GDP shrank, rampant inflation, high unemployment
-privatization of previously state-owned industries
Who had benefitted from the period of misdevelopment?
Oligarchs
organized crime
Corruption
Kleptocracy
Economic and political system based on organized crime
-underground economy (black market) flourished
Oligarchs
Russia’s leading business people. Fabulously wealthy and powerful
Oil and gas
(2000s boom)
-25% of national economy
-27 percent of world’s natural gas
-2nd largest oil exporter in the world (behind Saudi Arabia)
-State controlled energy companies
-too dependent on a single commodity?
Vladimir Putin
PResident 200-2008
prime minister 2008-2011
predisent- 2012-2024?

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