physical geography

Geography
2 types of crust
continental and oceanic
thickest layer of earth
mantle
lowest layer of earth
iron nickel core (molten outer core; solid inner core)
lithosphere
strong layer of earths crust
asthenosphere
hot and weak layer of earths crust, mostly solid
isostasy
relationship between crustal thickness and elevation
seamounts
numerous submerged mountains, existing on the ocean floor
abyssal plains
the smooth surface of the ocean floor which is moderately deep (3-5 km)
continental shelves
continents that continue outward from the shoreline under shallow seawater for hundreds of kilometers, form submerged benches or…
mid-ocean ridges
broad, symmetrical ridges that cross the ocean basins. they are 2-3 kilometers higher than the average depth of the seafloor.
oceanic fracture zones
sharp steps in the seafloor that are at right angles to the mid-ocean ridges.
plateaus
broad, high regions that reach high elevations such as on the Tibetan Plateau of Southern Asia.
Deep oceanic trenches
make up the deepest parts of the ocean
island arcs
crossing the seafloor are curving chains of islands known as this…
oceanic plateus
within the oceans are several, broad elevated regions
3 types of relative plate motions
divergent boundary, convergent boundary, transform boundary
divergent boundary
move apart
convergent boundary
move toward eachother
transform boundary
move horizontally past eachother
seafloor spreading
oceanic plates move apart at mid-ocean ridges
rift
narrow trough
subduction
one plate moves down in ocean-ocean convergent boundary
pacific ring of fire
oceanic plates subducted on both sides
mountain belts with volcanoes
subduction beneath continental plates in pacific ring of fire
continental collision
wide zone of deformation

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