Physical Geography Final

  1. Alfred Wagner

in 1915 wrote the origin of continents and seas where he postulated a super continent existed
  1. Name of Algred Wegener’s super continent

  1. Alfred Wegener revived which notion in his book

continental drift
downward crust fold due to folding and compression
upward crust folding due to folding and compression
four types of faults





most complicated type of fault
Thrust faults
fault does not cause any upward or downward movement
strike -slip
downthrown block
upthrown/uplifted block
Most widespread of all intrusive forms of magma
deformation of earth’s crust
What ocean is the Pacific Ring of Fire located in
% of worlds volcanoes found in the Ring of Fire
Plate boundry where many volcanoes and earthquakes happen
Pacific Ring of Fire
4 types of volcanoes

Shield – wide and low to the ground (island forming)

Composite – symetrical steep shield

Lava Dome – dome grows from explosion within

Cinder Cone – smallest with steep sides

volcano that is wide and low to the ground
shield volcano
volcano that is steep and symetrical
composite volcano
170 times in the last 100 million years
times Earth’s magnetic field changed direction
measures slope of valcano and looks for swelling
how is the nature of a volcano determined?
by the amount of silica in the magma
high amount of silica
non explosive and quiet volcano
low amounts of silica
accreted terrane
piece of lithosphere that collides with continent and breaks off and attaches to the land of the continent

P waves

S waves

P – Primary waves move fast and are felt first


S – Secondary waves move side to side or up and down in a shearing motion

Where are the oldest rocks found
at the trench
Divergent contact between plates
magma wells up between plates. Upward flow of molten material produces a continuous like of active volcanoes
Convergent contact between plates
plates collide and are called “destructive” boundries because they result in removal or compression of the surface crust
Transform contact between plates
two plates slip past one another. This slippage happens along great vertical fractures called transform faults
lowering of continental surfaces
breaking down of rock into smaller components by atmospheric and biotic agents
mass wasting
short downslope movement of broken rock material due to gravity
more extensive and distant removeal, transportation and eventual deposition of fragmented rock material
two ways mass wasting impacts the landscape
  1. fragmentation of bedrock
  2. open scar on the surface that was vacate and the accumulation of debri is deposited somewhere downslope from the scar

master joint
large joint that extends for long distances and through considerable thickness
joint system
two prominents sets of joints that intersect almost at right angles
5 types of rock openings
  1. Microscopic openings – occur in profusion
  2. joints – most common – prepare the bedrock for faults
  3. Faults – break in the bedrock along which there is relative displacement of the walls making up the crack
  4. Lava vesicles – holes that develop in cooling lava when gas is unable to escape as the lava solidifies
  5. Solution cavities – holes formed in calcareous (limestone) rock as soluble minerals are disolved and carried away by perculating water

three atmospheric components of chemical weathering

oxidation – oxygen disolved in water comes in contact w certain rock minerals

hydrolysis – chemical union of water with another substance to produce a new substance that is softer and weaker than the original

carbonation – reaction between water and carbon monoxide

mass wasting and quick clays
spontaniously change from a relatively solid mass to a near liquid condition as a result of a sudden disturbance or shock
calcreous rock
pourus rock
three principles of weathering
  1. mechanical
  2. chemical
  3. biotic/biological

what type of weathering does not change the chemical composition of rock
angle of repose

steepest angle on a slope without downward movement of rock


balance between the pull of gravity and the cohesion ; friction of the rock material

types of mechanical weathering

Frost Weding – freeze thaw action of water

Salt Weding – when salts crystalize out of solution as water evaporates

Temperature changes – fluctuation in temperatures from day to night ; summer to winter

Exfoliation – curved layrs peel off bedgrock

pieces of unsorted angular rock that fall
types of mass wasting
  1. Fall – taulus cones ; taulus apron
  2. Creep – terracettes (compress soil in ridges) ; solification (on frozen land)
  3. Flow – Earth flow ; Mud flow
  4. Slide – Slump (backward rotation)

fastest mass wasting
slowest mass wasting
sream deposited debris
disolved load
minerals and salts that have been dissolved and carried in the stream
suspended load
fine particles of clay and slit which are carried in suspension
which load carries the greatest amount of material
suspended load
imaginary line that runs in the direction of the water and indicates the deepeset part of the stream
4 types of stream channel patterns
  1. straight – short and unusual
  2. sinious – winding with gentle and irregular curves
  3. meandering – extraordinarily intricate pattern
  4. braided streams – interwoven and interconnected channels

movement of small particles along a stream flow in a series of jumps and bounces
splash erosion
occurs when rain drops collide with the ground and soil particles move up ; out shifting lateraly
which is the smalles and largest in a stream system?
smallest is 1 and largest is 3
radial patter
drainage pattern associated with streams descending from a concentric pattern
trellis patter of drainage
develops as a response to underlying band of tilted hard and soft strata with long parallel streams linked by short right angled segments
what type of strata do knickpoints develop in?
resistant top layer of strata
where is the greatest amount of erosion in a straight flowing stream?
center following the thalweg
slower water movment in a straight stream happens where?
sides and bottom
fastest movement of water in a straight stream
greatest amount of erosion in a meandering stream
ouside the bends
interfluves seperate what?
dendric pattern
back of a leaf type
Trellis drainage pattern
makes paths on soft bedrock
centripetal drainage pattern
go into a basin
radial drainage pattern
mountain/volcano (radiates)
annular drainage pattern
develop on dome or basin forms a ring like pattern around the hill
little to no hot water, water it has is converted to a stream
karst topography studies what?
underground water

sink holes


swallow holes

grow from top to the bottom
grows from the bottom
kart topography’s last feature to form
tower karst
where are most of worlds caves found
where there are large deposits of limestone
Calcium Bicarbonate
mix of carbon dioxide and calcium carbonate
hot water being ejected out of a gyser
what desolves great quantities of limestone
acid made from carbonic acid dissolved in hot water
3 things require in hydrothermal gyser
  1. weak/ broken ground surface
  2. abundance of water
  3. heat sour?

where is more than half of the worlds hydrothermal phenomenon
Yellowstone Naitonal Park – 225 of 425 geysers are found in Yellowstone
what kind of weathering has the least and the most affect on limestone?

mechanical has he least

chemical has the most

function of water on minerals
2 stages in cavern formation

initial excavation – percolating water disolves limestone bedrock and leaves voids


decoration stage – when deposited water leaves compounds which create a variety of speleothems

hot springs with little water drainage. water that is drained is converted to steam
forms inside saves formed by compounds left behind by water
4 things you can see in Kars topography from the air

sink holes


dissapearing streams

disrupted surface drainage

karst topography requires
large limestone deposits
what plates is California in?
Pacific plates
most famous strike slip fault
San Andreas fault
overall effect of disintegration, wearing away and removal of rock material

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