Physical Geography Fourth Edition Canadian Version

a wastage of glacial ice by both melting and evaporation
erosion of bedrock of a stream channel by impact of particles carried in a stream and by rolling of larger rock fragments over the stream bed; abrasion is also an activity of glacial ice, waves and wind
absolute instability

a condition that develops when the rising air remains warmer and less dense than the surrounding air


absolute stability
a condition the develops when the temperature of the surrounding air is warmer than the air parcel
actual evapotranspiration (water use)
actual rate of evapotranspiration at a given time and place
adiabatic process

change of temperature within a gas because of compression or expansion without gain or loss of heat from the outside


the process collectively referring to the geomorphic work of wind in terrestrial environments. It includes erosion, transportation, and deposition of Earth materials.
soil order consisting of soils of humid and sub-humid climates, with high base status and an argillic horizon
alpine glacier
long, narrow mountain glacier on a steep downgrade, occupying the floor of a troughlike valley.
a soil order that includes soils on volcanic ash; often enriched by organic matter, yielding a dark soil colour.
soil order consisting of soils of dry climates, with or without argillic horizons, and with accumulation of carbonated or soluble salts 
astronomical hypothesis
 explanation for glaciations and interglaciations making use of cyclic variations in the form of solar energy received at the Earth’s surface.
circular or closed-loop coral reef enclosing an open lagoon with no island inside.
barchan dune
sand dune of crescentic bade outline with sharp crest and steep lee slip face, with crescent points (horns) pointing downwind.
certain positively-charged ions in the soil that are also plant nutrients; the most important are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium.

thick, wedge-shaped accumulation of sand, gravel or cobbles in the zone of breaking waves


Bergeron process;
the formation of precipitation in the cold clouds of the mid and upper latitudes by ice crystal growth

largest recognizable subdivision of terrestrial ecosystems, including the total assemblage of plant and animal life interacting within the life layer


shallow depression produced by continued deflation.
boreal forest climate
cold climate of the subarctic zone in the northern hemisphere with long, extremely severe winters and several consecutive months of zero potential evapotranspiration (water need)
Brunisolic soils
a class of forest soils in the Canadian Soil classification system with brownish B horizon;
Chernozemic soil
a class of grassland soils in the Canadian soil classification system with a thick A horizon rich in organic matter.

bowl-shaped depression carved in rock by glacial processes and holding the firn of the upper end of an alpine glacier



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